| 哥倫比亞共和國 |
哥倫比亞共和國廣場 （ 西班牙語 ）
| 座右銘 ：“自由與騎士團 ”（西班牙語） |
| 國歌： “哦，凱萊Inmarcesible （西班牙語） |
| 資本 |
| 波哥大 |
|確認區域語言||75個民族的語言和方言。 英語也正式在聖安德烈斯和普羅維登西亞群島  。|
|族群 （  ）|
|政府||酉 總統 憲政共和|
|-||總|| 1141748公里2（ 26日 ） |
|-||2012年2月估計||46366364  （ 第27屆 ）|
|-||密度|| 40.74/km 2（ 第172 ） |
|國內生產總值 （ PPP ）||2012年估計|
|-||總||500.576十億美元 （ 28 ）|
|-||總||三百六十五點四零二十億美元 （ 31 ）|
|基尼 （2010）|| 55.9  |
|人類發展指數 （2011）|| 0.710  |
|貨幣|| 比索 （ |
|時區||COT （ UTC -5 B）|
|一。||儘管哥倫比亞憲法規定的國家的本地語言（約88方言）西班牙語作為官方語言在其所有領土，也是官方的。英文也是正式在聖安德烈斯和普羅維登群島（ 協商德拉諾瑪 。Alcaldiabogota.gov.co。2012年10月8日。）|
|二。||由國家工商代理監管局的官方哥倫比亞的的時間（ horalegal.sic.gov.co ）控制和協調。 “Decreto 1992年，2153年的危象20” （西班牙文）。 Presidencia共和國哥倫比亞。 http://www.presidencia.gov.co/prensa_new/decretoslinea/1992/diciembre/30/dec2153301992.pdf 。 2008年10月13號 。|
哥倫比亞 （pron. / / kə-LUM-biə ，或/ / kəLOM-biə ），正式哥倫比亞共和國 （ 西班牙語 ： 哥倫比亞共和 [repuβlika和DE kolombja] ），是一個由32個部門組成的統一的憲法共和國。它位於南美洲西北部，界向西北巴拿馬 ; 加勒比海北部到東部由委內瑞拉和巴西  ， [8到南部， 厄瓜多爾和秘魯 ; 和西太平洋 。哥倫比亞是第26位的國家，地區和第四大後，在南美巴西， 阿根廷和秘魯。擁有超過46萬人，哥倫比亞是27日在世界上人口大國和第二大人口在世界上的任何講西班牙語的國家， 墨西哥 。哥倫比亞是一個中間力量 ，是第四大經濟體，在拉丁美洲，在南美洲的第三大 。生產咖啡，花，綠寶石，煤炭和石油的主要部門，哥倫比亞的經濟。在2050年的經濟前景，25日，世界最大經濟GDP在全球經濟中發揮了決定性的作用，特別是在美國，在哥倫比亞被認為是世界上第三大銀行匯豐銀行已經建立了一個角度。
最初居住的土著民族，包括Muisca ， 琴巴亞 ， 泰羅納現在是哥倫比亞境內。在1499年西班牙抵達，並開始一段時間的征服和殖民最終創造了新格拉納達總督轄區 （包括現代的哥倫比亞，委內瑞拉，厄瓜多爾，巴西西北部和巴拿馬），與它的資本在波哥大 。 獨立於西班牙於1819年，但在1830年贏得了“ 大哥倫比亞與委內瑞拉和厄瓜多爾的分裂倒塌。什麼是哥倫比亞和巴拿馬成為新格拉納達共和國 。新的國家試驗，聯邦制的Granadine聯合會 （1858年）， 美國哥倫比亞 （1863年），哥倫比亞共和國前終於宣布於1886年。 在1903年巴拿馬脫離 。哥倫比亞在南美洲的第一個憲法政府 ，泛美組織的重要推手，最初是通過的巴拿馬代表大會和後來的美洲國家組織的創始人。 自由黨和保守黨的政黨，成立於1848年和1849年，是現存最古老的政黨在美洲。
哥倫比亞是不同種族的。之間的相互作用後代的原始居民，西班牙殖民者，原來的國家作為奴隸和20世紀的移民來自歐洲和中東地區的非洲人民，產生了不同的文化底蘊。 這也影響了哥倫比亞不同的地理環境。大多數的城市中心坐落在安第斯山脈的高地，但還包括哥倫比亞境內的亞馬遜雨林 ， 熱帶草原和加勒比和太平洋海岸線。生態，哥倫比亞是世界上17個生物多樣性大國之一，被認為是最具生物多樣性極其豐富，每平方公里。  
政黨之間的緊張關係經常爆發成暴力事件，最顯著的千日戰爭 （1899-1902）和洛杉磯暴力 ，開始於1948年。自20世紀60年代， 政府的力量 ， 左翼叛亂分子和右翼準軍事部隊一直從事非洲大陸的運行時間最長的武裝衝突 。 在20世紀80年代急劇上升。自2010年起暴力事件有所減少，一些準軍事組織遣散一個有爭議的和平進程的一部分，大部分的領土，他們一度佔主導地位的游擊隊失去控制的 。
[ 編輯 ] 詞源
要引用的國家，哥倫比亞政府使用的術語哥倫比亞和 República 哥倫比亞 。
[ 編輯 ] 歷史
[ 編輯 ] 史前史
由於它的地理位置，目前哥倫比亞境內的人口在中美洲 ，加勒比地區，安第斯山脈和亞馬遜的走廊。最古老的考古發現是從網站在Monsú和Pubenza，歷史可以追溯到大約公元前20,000年。其他的遺跡表明，在昆迪納馬卡省的 Tocancipá ， Zipaquirá和特肯達馬之間的埃爾阿布拉內的地區，如在早期的職業。這些網站對應的原始美洲期。在波多黎各Hormiga，古風時期的痕跡被發現，其中包括在美國發現的最古老的陶器，歷史可追溯至公元前3000年左右。
[ 編輯 ] 前哥倫布
約公元前10000年，現在是哥倫比亞境內的土著人居住的Muisca ， 琴巴亞 ，和泰羅納 。 獵人-採集社會日波哥大（“埃爾阿布拉”和“特肯達馬”）附近存在一個交易和居住在馬格達萊納河流域的文化。 在公元前1000年開始，開發組的美洲印第安人的政治制度的的“ cacicazgos “，由酋長的權力金字塔結構。的的主要居住Muiscas什麼是現在的部門的博亞卡和昆迪納馬卡高的高原（ 高原Cundiboyacense ）的面積。他們耕種玉米，馬鈴薯，藜麥，棉，成交價與周邊國家工作的黃金，翡翠，毛毯，陶瓷工藝品，古柯和鹽。的Taironas居住在哥倫比亞北部的聖瑪爾塔內華達山脈中分離出來的安第斯山脈。 
[ 編輯 ] 西班牙語中發現（1499年至1525年AD）
阿隆索·奧赫達 （與哥倫布航行）在1500年的瓜希拉半島。聖瑪爾塔成立於1525年，和“卡塔赫納於1533年。貢薩洛·希門尼斯·德克薩達率領一支探險隊內部在1535年，創辦“新城市格拉納達（Granada）”，很快的名稱改為“聖菲”。另外兩個顯著的行程西班牙人內部發生在同一時期。 塞巴斯蒂安·貝拉爾卡薩 ，征服了基多，北上，成立卡利，1536年和波帕揚，在1537年，尼古拉斯·費德曼在東部跨越了的利亞諾斯東方和去山脈。
[ 編輯 ] 殖民地時期（1525年至1808年）
在1717年最初創建的新格拉納達總督轄區 ，然後被暫時移走，終於在1739年重新建立。的Viceroyalty為首都聖菲波哥大。總督轄區包括其他一些省份的南美洲西北部，以前一直所管轄的Viceroyalties新的西班牙和秘魯 ，主要是對應今天的委內瑞拉，厄瓜多爾和巴拿馬。因此，波哥大成為西班牙的財產在新的世界的主要行政中心之一，隨著利馬 ， 墨西哥城 ，但它仍然有些落後相比，這兩個城市在一些經濟和後勤的方式。
[ 編輯 ] 獨立於西班牙（1808至1824年）
安東尼奧·納里尼奧 ，反對西班牙的集中和領導的總督轄區的反對，發起一個運動，在1811年11月的獨立的卡塔赫納 ，並形成兩個獨立的政府打了一場內戰-一段被稱為祖國報波霸 。次年，納里尼奧宣布了美國新的格拉納達省 ，由卡米洛·托雷斯·特諾里奧。儘管成功的叛亂，出現了兩種截然不同的思想電流之間的解放者（聯邦制和集中）給人們帶來的內部衝突，這有助於奪回領土的西班牙。胡安·德·薩馬諾，其政權懲罰那些參加起義的指揮下恢復的Viceroyalty。報復，引發市場新的叛亂，加上一個較弱的西班牙，一個成功的叛亂領導的委內瑞拉出生的西蒙·玻利瓦爾，終於在1819年宣布獨立。於1822年在哥倫比亞境內的，並於1823年在委內瑞拉終於被擊敗了親西班牙的阻力。
[ 編輯 ] 發表獨立和共和（1824年至1930年）
在1830年，國內政治和領土分裂導致分裂國家今天的厄瓜多爾，委內瑞拉和基多（）。所謂的“ 昆迪納馬卡省部 “採用了” 新格拉納達 “，它保持直到1856年，當它成為了”Confederación格拉納達“（ 的Granadine聯合會 ）。經過2年的內戰於1863年，“ 美國哥倫比亞 “創建，持續直到1886年，當國家終於成為了著名的哥倫比亞共和國。保持兩黨政治勢力之間的內部分歧，偶爾點燃了非常血腥的內戰，最重要的是千日戰爭“ （1899-1902）。
[ 編輯 ]暴力和民族陣線（1930至74年）
羅哈斯的沉積後， 哥倫比亞保守黨和哥倫比亞的自由黨同意建立的“ 國民陣線 “，聯盟將共同治理國家的。根據該協議，總統將在保守派和自由派之間，每4年交替16年，雙方將在所有其他選舉產生的職位有奇偶校驗。國民陣線結束“LA暴力”，和的國民陣線管理試圖實行深遠的社會和經濟改革與進步聯盟合作。最後，每一個的連續自由和保守的管理之間的矛盾的結果好壞參半。儘管在某些領域的進步，許多社會和政治問題，並正式成立了游擊隊組織FARC ， ELN和M-19等，以爭取政府和政治機構。
[ 編輯 ] 麥德林和卡利卡特爾
[ 編輯 ] 1991年憲法
1991年 ， 哥倫比亞新憲法批准後，由制憲會議的哥倫比亞正在起草，包括政治，民族，人類和性別權利的規定。新“憲法”初步禁止引渡哥倫比亞國民，從而導致指控，毒品卡特爾已經成功地遊說提供引渡的規定被廢除後，於1996年恢復。卡特爾此前反對引渡，促進了劇烈的運動，導致許多恐怖襲擊和黑手黨式的處決。他們還通過腐敗哥倫比亞政府和政治結構的影響，這樣的標籤，由1996年的第三部分的參議院所提出的黑手黨。這些情況 進行了廣泛的在公正的情況下，被稱為“8000案” 8000，這是最大的政治醜聞，20世紀90年代發現的。
自1991年憲法的頒布和改革，繼續困擾該國的影響，毒品交易，如哥倫比亞革命武裝力量游擊隊的 叛亂 ，和準軍事組織，如AUC ，以及與其他小派別從事一場血腥的內部武裝衝突 。總統安德烈斯·帕斯特拉納和哥倫比亞革命武裝力量試圖談判解決1999年和2002年之間的衝突。政府成立了一個“非軍事區，但重複導致的緊張局勢和危機帕斯特拉納政府得出結論，雙方的談判無效的。帕斯特拉納也開始實施哥倫比亞計劃“的倡議，以結束武裝衝突，並促進一個強大的反毒品戰略的雙重目標。
[ 編輯 ] 哥倫比亞武裝衝突，2002年-至今
總統阿爾瓦羅·烏里韋的哥倫比亞革命武裝力量和其他非法團體，政府應用更多的軍事壓力。在進攻後，美國的援助，支持許多安全指標的改善。報導稱綁架呈直線下降（從2000年的3700到2009年的172（10月））一樣故意殺人案（從2002年的28,837到15,817在2009年，根據警方，衛生系統的報告，從28,534下降至17,717在同一時期）。率穩步下降了近十年，直到2010年，當280例，1至10月，大部分集中在麥德林地區報告的綁架。    而農村地區和叢林仍然危險，整體減少暴力導致的國內旅遊和旅遊業的增長。 
據官方統計，從哥倫比亞陸軍 FARC-EP有一個總的18,000名成員於2010年12月，與9000的定期游擊隊和其餘平民服裝的武裝民兵成員，在城市和鄉村。 一個獨立的研究人員說時間雜誌稱，FARC-EP在2011年有30,000個這樣的民兵成員，表示在叛軍控制的戰略轉變。 這個觀點違背廣泛接受的官方數字在2002年的30.000成員，但超過22.500游擊隊成員，其中包括5.8000民兵成員投降那年和2008年之間，儘管哥倫比亞政府同意在一個轉變的戰略對民兵的行動，造成的軍事壓力，使得更加難以領域定期游擊單位為哥倫比亞革命武裝力量。   “哥倫比亞革命武裝力量的指揮官總司 令2011年11月， 阿方索·卡諾被安全部隊殺害。 他被替換的提莫萊昂希門尼斯 ，他的第一任指揮官幾天後，卡諾的死亡承擔責任。希門尼斯被認為是在山走廊， 塞薩爾部 ， 北桑坦德省和玻利瓦爾部的移動 。較小的反政府游擊隊組織Ejército去解放陣線 2010年，估計有2900和5000之間的成員。 在復員的右翼準軍事團體自衛隊哥倫比亞的國家出現的興起，一些新的準軍事團體如洛杉磯Rastrojos 洛杉磯Urabeños ，被指控犯有廣泛的謀殺，販毒和掠奪土地 。 37]
[ 編輯 ] 在哥倫比亞的和平進程，2012年-至今
[ 編輯 ] 最近的事態發展
[ 編輯 ] 地理
哥倫比亞的地理特點是由五個主要的自然區域 ，展示自己獨特的特點，從安第斯山脈地區共享與厄瓜多爾和委內瑞拉，巴拿馬和厄瓜多爾的太平洋沿岸地區共享;共享與委內瑞拉和巴拿馬加勒比海沿岸地區亞諾斯 （平原）與委內瑞拉共享，共享與委內瑞拉，巴西，秘魯和厄瓜多爾的亞馬遜雨林地區。哥倫比亞是在地球更加較高的生物多樣性特點，世界範圍內通過單位面積的物種率最高的國家，它有最大的的數量endemisms（自然都沒有發現其他地方）的任何國家的物種。 About 10% of the species of the Earth live in Colombia, including over 1800 species of birds, more than in Europe and North America combined, and it hosts 456 species of mammals, more than any other country in the world. It is the only South American country which borders both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by Panama and the Caribbean Sea; and to the west by Ecuador and the Pacific Ocean. Including its Caribbean islands, it lies between latitudes 14°N and 5°S , and longitudes 66° and 82°W
Part of the Ring of Fire , a region of the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions , Colombia is dominated by the Andes (which contain the majority of the country's urban centres). Beyond the Colombian Massif (in the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño ) these are divided into three branches known as cordilleras (mountain ranges): the Cordillera Occidental , running adjacent to the Pacific coast and including the city of Cali ; the Cordillera Central , running between the Cauca and Magdalena river valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín , Manizales , Pereira and Armenia ; and the Cordillera Oriental , extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta . Peaks in the Cordillera Occidental exceed 13,000 ft (3,962 m), and in the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 18,000 ft (5,486 m). [ 48 ] At 8,500 ft (2,591 m), Bogotá is the highest city of its size in the world.
East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos , part of the Orinoco River basin , and, in the far south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest . Together these lowlands comprise over half Colombia's territory, but they contain less than 3% of the population. To the north the Caribbean coast , home to 20% of the population and the location of the major port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena , generally consists of low-lying plains, but it also contains the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which includes the country's tallest peaks ( Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar ), and the Guajira Desert . By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands , backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are sparsely populated and covered in dense vegetation. The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura .
Colombian territory also includes a number of Caribbean and Pacific islands . This is considered by some as a sixth region, comprising those areas outside continental Colombia, including the department of San Andrés y Providencia in the Caribbean Sea and the islands of Malpelo and Gorgona in the Pacific Ocean. However, cultural ties are with the respective coastlines.
[ edit ] Hydrology and climate
The hydrography of Colombia is one of the richest in the world. Its main rivers are Magdalena , Cauca , Guaviare , and Caquetá . Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers mark limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively. [ 49 ]
The striking variety in temperature and precipitation results principally from differences in elevation. Temperatures range from very hot at sea level to relatively cold at higher elevations but vary little with the season. Temperatures generally decrease about 3.5° F (2° C ) for every 1,000-ft (300-m) increase in altitude above sea level, presenting perpetual snowy peaks to hot river valleys and basins. Rainfall is concentrated in two wet seasons (roughly corresponding to the spring and autumn of temperate latitudes) but varies considerably by location. Colombia's Pacific coast has one of the highest levels of rainfall in the world, with the south east often drenched by more than 200 in (500 cm) of rain per year. On the other hand rainfall in parts of the Guajira Peninsula seldom exceeds 30 in (75 cm) per year. Rainfall in the rest of the country runs between these two extremes.
Colombians customarily describe their country in terms of the climatic zones. Below 900 meters (2,953 ft) in elevation is the tierra caliente (hot land), where temperatures vary between 24 and 38 °C (75.2 and 100.4 °F). The most productive land and the majority of the population can be found in the tierra templada (temperate land, between 900 and 1,980 meters (2,953 and 6,496 ft)), which provide the best conditions for the country's coffee growers, and the tierra fría (cold land, 1,980 and 3,500 meters (6,496 and 11,483 ft)), where wheat and potatoes dominate. In the tierra fría mean temperatures range between 10 and 19 °C (50 and 66.2 °F). Beyond the tierra fría lie the alpine conditions of the zona forestada (forested zone) and then the treeless grasslands of the páramos . Above 4,500 meters (14,764 ft), where temperatures are below freezing, is the tierra helada , a zone of permanent snow and ice.
About 86% of the country's total area lies in the tierra caliente. Included in this, and interrupting the temperate area of the Andean highlands, are the long and narrow extension of the Magdalena Valley and a small extension in the Cauca Valley. The tierra fría constitutes just 6% of the total area, but supports about a quarter of the country's population.
[ edit ] Biodiversity
Colombia has a large number of taxonomic groups animals and flora typical equator which is, in addition to varieties of migrations wildlife from around the world. [ 51 ] Colombia is one of the megadiverse countries in biodiversity , [ 52 ] ranking third in living species and second in bird species. [ 53 ] As for plants, the country has between 40,000 and 45,000 plant species , equivalent to 10 or 20% of total global species, considered very high for a country of intermediate size. [ 54 ] In total, Colombia is the second most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil.
Colombia has a "Protected areas of Colombia|National Protected Areas System" (SINAP) administered by the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development. It also has a "National Parks of Colombia|National Park System", under the Directorate of National Parks, at the end of 2007, comprising over 11% of the mainland and has 55 protected areas, which testify to the richness and biodiversity of the country and are in the Andean Region, 25 (in the Knot Pasture, 2, in the Cordillera Occidental, 4, in Central, 6, and the East, 13), in the Caribbean Region, 9, in the Orinoco, 2, in the Amazon, 10, on the Pacific Coast, 5, and finally, in the Islands, 3. The areas are classified as: National Parks (41), Fauna and Flora Sanctuary (10), National Reserves (2), Via Park (1) and Unique Natural Area (1).
|Fauna and Flora of Colombia|
|Jaguar ( Panthera onca )||Amazon river dolphin ( Inia geoffrensis )||Spectacled bear ( Tremarctos ornatus )||Channel-billed Toucan ( Ramphastos vitellinus )||Colombian tetra ( Hyphessobrycon columbianus )||Spectacled caiman ( Caiman crocodilus )|
|White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )||Blue-and-yellow Macaw ( Ara ararauna )||Brown-throated sloth ( Bradypus variegatus )||West Indian manatee ( Trichechus manatus )||Cotton-top tamarin ( Saguinus oedipus )||Nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus )|
|Passion flowers ( Passiflora )||Pinguicula ( Pinguicula moranensis )||Victoria amazonica ( Victoria regia )||Clavellina ( Caesalpinia pulcherrima )||Albizia saman ( Samanea saman )||Fly-carrying Restrepia ( Restrepia muscifera )|
|Bamboos ( Bambusoideae )||rosewoodtree ( Aniba rosaeodora )||( Acacallis cyanea )||( Oncidium ochmatochilum )||( Zygia lehmannii )||Guayacán ( Tabebuia chrysantha )|
[ edit ] National system of protected areas
Colombia has 56 protected areas under the protection of the "National System of Protected Areas" (SINAP) whose most prominent feature nationally on "National Parks System" (SPNN). These areas cover an area of about 12,602,320.7 hectares (126,023.21 square kilometers) and account for more than 11.04% of the Colombian mainland. [ 56 ]
[ edit ] Environmental issues
The environmental challenges faced by Colombians are caused by both natural and human factors. Many natural hazards result from the geological instability related to Colombia's position along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Colombia has 15 major volcanoes , the eruptions of which have on occasion resulted in substantial loss of life, such as at Armero in 1985 . Geological faults that have caused numerous devastating earthquakes, such as the 1999 Armenia earthquake . Heavy floods both in mountainous areas and in low-lying watersheds and coastal regions regularly cause deaths and considerable damage to property during the rainy seasons. Rainfall intensities vary with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation which occurs in unpredictable cycles, at times causing especially severe flooding.
Human induced deforestation has started to creep into the rainforests of Amazonia and the Pacific coast and has substantially changed the Andean landscape. Deforestation is also linked to the conversion of lowland tropical forests to palm oil plantations. However, compared to neighboring countries rates of deforestation in Colombia are still relatively low. [ 57 ] In urban areas, contamination of the local environment has been caused by human produced waste, and the use of fossil fuels . Participants in the country's armed conflict have also contributed to the pollution of the environment. Illegal armed groups have deforested large areas of land to plant illegal crops, with an estimated 99,000 hectares used for the cultivation of coca in 2007, [ 58 ] while in response the government has fumigated these crops using hazardous chemicals. Insurgents have also destroyed oil pipelines creating major ecological disasters. Demand from rapidly expanding cities has placed increasing stress on the water supply as watersheds are affected and ground water tables fall. Nonetheless, Colombia is the fourth country in the world by magnitude of total freshwater supply, and still has large reserves of freshwater. [ 59 ]
[ edit ] Government
The government of Colombia takes place within the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic as established in the Constitution of 1991. In accordance with the principle of separation of powers , government is divided into three branches: the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch.
As the head of the executive branch, the President of Colombia serves as both head of state and head of government , followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers . The president is elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms and is limited to a maximum of two such terms (increased from one in 2005). At the provincial level executive power is vested in department governors , municipal mayors and local administrators for smaller administrative subdivisions, such as corregidores or corregimientos .
The legislative branch of government is represented nationally by the Congress , a bicameral institution comprising a 166-seat Chamber of Representatives and a 102-seat Senate . The Senate is elected nationally and the Chamber of Representatives by every region and minority groups. [ 60 ] Members of both houses are elected to serve four-year terms two months before the president, also by popular vote. At the provincial level the legislative branch is represented by department assemblies and municipal councils. All regional elections are held one year and five months after the presidential election.
The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court , consisting of 23 judges divided into three chambers (Penal, Civil and Agrarian, and Labour). The judicial branch also includes the Council of State , which has special responsibility for administrative law and also provides legal advice to the executive, the Constitutional Court , responsible for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Superior Council of Judicature , responsible for auditing the judicial branch. Colombia operates a system of civil law , which since 2005 has been applied through an adversarial system .
[ 編輯 ] 行政區劃
Click on a department on the map below to go to its article.
Colombia is divided into 32 departments and one capital district , which is treated as a department (Bogotá also serves as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca ). Departments are subdivided into municipalities , each of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in turn subdivided into corregimientos . Each department has a local government with a governor and assembly directly elected to four-year terms. Each municipality is headed by a mayor and council, and each corregimiento by an elected corregidor , or local leader.
In addition to the capital nine other cities have been designated districts (in effect special municipalities), on the basis of special distinguishing features. These are Barranquilla , Cartagena , Santa Marta , Cúcuta , Popayán , Bucaramanga , Tunja , Turbo , Buenaventura and Tumaco . Some departments have local administrative subdivisions, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other (for example in Antioquia and Cundinamarca). Where departments have a low population (for example Amazonas, Vaupés and Vichada), special administrative divisions are employed, such as "department corregimientos ", which are a hybrid of a municipality and a corregimiento .
[ edit ] Foreign affairs
The foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of state, and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs . Colombia has diplomatic missions in all continents and is also represented in multilateral organizations at the following locations:
- Brussels (Mission to the European Union )
- Geneva (Permanent Missions to the United Nations and other international organizations)
- Montevideo (Permanent Missions to the Latin American Integration Association and Mercosur )
- Nairobi (Permanent Missions to the United Nations and other international organizations)
- New York (Permanent Mission to the United Nations)
- Paris (Permanent Mission to UNESCO )
- Rome (Permanent Mission to the Food and Agriculture Organization )
- Washington, DC (Permanent Mission to the Organization of American States )
Colombia's foreign relations are mostly concentrated on combating the illegal drug trade and fighting terrorism, both which originate with the FARC. Colombia, with the help of the United States, have fought the FARC and pushed them into the Amazon jungle, significantly reducing the drug trade and kidnappings within Colombia. This co-operation from the United States is mainly through Plan Colombia . Another foreign relation policy concentrates around expanding their international market and managing their international issues with other countries. Colombia enjoys special financial preferences from the European Union in certain product categories.
Colombia was one of the 12 founding members of the UNASUR , which is supposedly modeled on the European Union having free trade agreements between the members, free movement of people, a common currency, and also a common passport. Colombia is a member of the Andean Community of Nations , the Pacific Alliance and the Union of South American Nations .
[ 編輯 ] 軍事
The executive branch of government is responsible for managing the defense of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Ministry of Defence exercises day-to-day control of the military and the Colombian National Police . According to UN Human Development Report criteria, Colombia has 209,000 military personnel, [ 61 ] and in 2005 3.7% of the country's GDP went towards military expenditure, [ 62 ] both figures placing it 21st in the world. Within Latin America, Colombia's armed forces are the third-largest, behind Brazil and Mexico, and it spends the second-highest proportion of GDP after Chile.
The Colombian military is divided into three branches: the National Army of Colombia ; the Colombian Air Force ; and the Colombian National Armada . The National Police functions as a gendarmerie , operating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country. Each of these operates with their own intelligence apparatus separate from the national intelligence agency, the Administrative Department of Security .
The National Army is formed by divisions, regiments and special units; the National Armada by the Colombian Naval Infantry , the Naval Force of the Caribbean , the Naval Force of the Pacific , the Naval Force of the South , Colombia Coast Guards , Naval Aviation and the Specific Command of San Andres y Providencia ; and the Air Force by 13 air units . The National Police has a presence in all municipalities.
[ 編輯 ] 政治
For over a century Colombian politics were monopolized by the Liberal Party (founded in 1848 on an anti-clerical , broadly economically liberal and federalist platform), and the Conservative Party (founded in 1849 espousing Catholicism, protectionism , and centralism ). This culminated in the formation of the National Front (1958–1974), which formalized arrangements for an alternation of power between the two parties and excluded non-establishment alternatives (thereby fueling the nascent armed conflict ).
By the time of the dissolution of the National Front, traditional political alignments had begun to fragment. This process has continued since, and the consequences of this are exemplified by the results of the 2006 presidential election which was won with 62% of the vote by the incumbent, Álvaro Uribe . Uribe was from a Liberal background but he campaigned as part of the Colombia First movement with the support of the Conservative Party. In second place with 22% was Carlos Gaviria of the Alternative Democratic Pole , a newly formed social democratic alliance which includes elements of the former M-19 guerrilla movement. Horacio Serpa of the Liberal Party came third with 12%. Meanwhile in the congressional elections held earlier that year the two traditional parties secured only 93 out of 268 seats available.
Despite a number of controversies, most notably the ongoing parapolitics scandal, dramatic improvements in security and continued strong economic performance have ensured that former President Uribe remained popular among Colombian people, with his approval rating peaking at 85%, according to a poll in July 2008. [ 63 ] However, having served two terms, he was constitutionally barred from seeking re-election in 2010. Numerous Colombian Congressmen, with the support of a so-called ONG attempted to hold a referendum allowing a vote that would overturn the 2-term limit for presidents, but it was ruled unconstitutional by the Colombian constitutional court on 27 February 2010. By then his popularity had fallen to 55%. Uribe has stated that he respects the decision as one that cannot be appealed. His popularity rose again to 85% with the rescue of the politician Ingrid Betancourt from a seven years kidnapping by the FARC. Due to various embezzlement scandals uncovered by his successor, Santos, Uribe's popularity decreased by August 2011 to 63% and he no longer leads the political party that brought him the presidency.
In presidential elections held on 30 May 2010 the former Minister of defense Juan Manuel Santos received 46% of the vote. [ 64 ] A second round was required since no candidate received over the 50% winning threshold of votes. In the run-off elections on 20 June 2010 against the second most popular candidate, Antanas Mockus who had scored 21%, [ 64 ] Santos was declared the winner. His term as Colombia's president runs for four years beginning 7 August 2010.
Santos began with a popularity of 73% but after one and half years it had decreased to 58%. The Colombian people have experienced a sensation of insecurity under Santos' rule, arguably due more to the new policy of his government of telling citizens the truth of the conflict than to a real escalation of the conflict itself. For the very first time in Colombian history a President accepted that there is an internal armed conflict in the country and proposed an economic reparation for the victims and restitution of their lands. Santos has promoted a Justice System Reform and some of his Ministers lead a discussion regarding Land Property Reform. In addition, President Santos opened a discussion about the convenience of the United States policy of a war against illegal drugs.
[ 編輯 ] 經濟
In spite of the difficulties presented by serious internal armed conflict, Colombia's market economy grew steadily in the latter part of the 20th century, with gross domestic product (GDP) increasing at an average rate of over 4% per year between 1970 and 1998. The country suffered a recession in 1999 (the first full year of negative growth since the Great Depression ), and the recovery from that recession was long and painful. However, in recent years growth has been impressive, reaching 8.2% in 2007, one of the highest rates of growth in Latin America. Meanwhile the Colombian stock exchange climbed from 1,000 points at its creation in July 2001 to over 7,300 points by November 2008. [ 65 ]
According to International Monetary Fund estimates, in 2012 Colombia's GDP (PPP) was US$500 billion ( 28th in the world and third in South America). Adjusted for purchasing power parity , GDP per capita stands at US$10,742, placing Colombia 81st in the world . However, in practice this is relatively unevenly distributed among the population, and, in common with much of Latin America, Colombia scores poorly according to the Gini coefficient , with UN figures placing it among the lowest ranking countries . According to the World Bank , in 2010 the richest 20% of the population had a 60.2% [ 66 ] share of income/consumption and the poorest 20% just 3.0%, [ 67 ] and 15.8% of Colombians lived on less than $2 a day . [ 68 ] [ 69 ]
Government spending represents 37.9% of GDP. [ 11 ] Almost a quarter of this goes towards servicing the country's government debt , estimated at 52.8% of GDP in 2007. [ 11 ] [ 69 ] Other problems facing the economy include weak domestic and foreign demand, the funding of the country's pension system, and unemployment (10.8% in November 2008). [ 65 ] Inflation has remained relatively low in recent years, standing at 2.44% in 2012 [ 70 ]
Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanised rapidly in the 20th century, by the end of which just 22.7% of the workforce were employed in agriculture, generating just 11.5% of GDP; 18.7% of the workforce are employed in industry and 58.5% in services, responsible for 36% and 52.5% of GDP respectively. [ 11 ] Colombia is rich in natural resources, and its main exports include petroleum, coal, coffee and other agricultural produce, and gold. [ 71 ] Colombia is also known as the world's leading source of emeralds , [ 72 ] while over 70% of cut flowers imported by the United States are Colombian. [ 73 ] Principal trading partners are the United States (a controversial free trade agreement with the United States was approved on 11 October 2011 by the United States Congress and became effective from 15 May 2012), the European Union , Venezuela and China. [ 11 ] All imports, exports, and the overall balance of trade are at record levels, and the inflow of export dollars has resulted in a substantial re-valuation of the Colombian peso .
Economic performance has been aided by liberal reforms introduced in the early 1990s and continued during the presidency of Álvaro Uribe , whose policies included measures designed to bring the public sector deficit below 2.5% of GDP. In 2008, The Heritage Foundation assessed the Colombian economy to be 61.9% free , an increase of 2.3% since 2007, placing it 67th in the world and 15th out of 29 countries within the region. It has Free trade Zone (FTZ), such as Zona Franca del Pacifico , [ 74 ] located in the Valle del Cauca, one of the most striking areas for foreign investment. [ 75 ]
Meanwhile the improvements in security resulting from President Uribe's " democratic security " strategy have engendered an increased sense of confidence in the economy. On 28 May 2007 the American magazine BusinessWeek published an article naming Colombia "the most extreme emerging market on Earth". [ 76 ] Colombia's economy has improved in recent years. Investment soared, from 15% of GDP in 2002 to 26% in 2008. private business has retooled.
According to a recent World Bank report, doing business is easiest in Cali , Manizales , Ibagué and Pereira , and more difficult in Medellín and Cartagena. Reforms in custom administration have helped reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare documentation by over 60% for exports and 40% for imports compared to the previous report. Colombia has taken measures to address the backlog in civil municipal courts. The most important result was the dismissal of 12.2% of inactive claims in civil courts thanks to the application of Law 1194 of 2008 (Ley de Desistimiento Tácito).
[ edit ] Foreign investment
In 1990, to attract foreign investors and promote trade, an experiment from the International Monetary Fund known as "La Apertura" was adopted by the government as an open trade strategy. Although the analysis of the results are not clear, the fact is that the agricultural sector was severely impacted by this policy.
In 1991 and 1992, the government passed laws to stimulate foreign investment in nearly all sectors of the economy. The only activities closed to foreign direct investment are defense and national security, disposal of hazardous wastes, and real estate—the last of these restrictions is intended to hinder money laundering. Colombia established a special entity—CoInvertir—to assist foreigners in making investments in the country. Foreign investment flows for 1999 were $4.4 billion, down from $4.8 billion in 1998.
Major foreign investment projects underway include the $6 billion development of the Cusiana and Cupiagua oil fields, development of coal fields in the north of the country, and the recently concluded licensing for establishment of cellular telephone service. The United States accounted for 26.5% of the total $19.4 billion stock of non-petroleum foreign direct investment in Colombia at the end of 1998.
Colombia is the United States' fifth-largest export market in Latin America—behind Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela, and Argentina—and the 26th-largest market for US products worldwide. The United States is Colombia's principal trading partner, with two-way trade from November 1999 through November 2000 exceeding $9.5 billion--$3.5 billion US exports and $6.0 billion US imports. Colombia benefits from duty-free entry—for a 10-year period, through 2001—for certain of its exports to the United States under the Andean Trade Preferences Act. Colombia improved protection of intellectual property rights through the adoption of three Andean Pact decisions in 1993 and 1994.
The petroleum and natural gas coal mining, chemical, and manufacturing industries attract the greatest US investment interest. US investment accounted for 37.8% ($4.2 billion) of the total $11.2 billion in foreign direct investment at the end of 1997, excluding petroleum and portfolio investment.
[ 編輯 ] 礦業和能源
Colombia is well-endowed with minerals and energy resources. It has the largest coal reserves in Latin America, and is second to Brazil in hydroelectric potential. Estimates of petroleum reserves in 1995 were 3.1 billion barrels (490,000,000 m 3 ). It also possesses significant amounts of nickel , gold , silver , platinum , and emeralds .
The discovery of 2 billion barrels (320,000,000 m 3 ) of high-quality oil at the Cusiana and Cupiagua fields, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) east of Bogotá , has enabled Colombia to become a net oil exporter since 1986. The Transandino pipeline transports oil from Orito in the Department of Putumayo to the Pacific port of Tumaco in the Department of Nariño . [ 77 ] Total crude oil production averages 620 thousand barrels per day (99,000 m 3 /d); about 184 thousand barrels per day (29,300 m 3 /d) is exported. The Pastrana government has significantly liberalized its petroleum investment policies, leading to an increase in exploration activity. Refining capacity cannot satisfy domestic demand, so some refined products, especially gasoline , must be imported. Plans for the construction of a new refinery are under development.
While Colombia has vast hydroelectric potential, a prolonged drought in 1992 forced severe electricity rationing throughout the country until mid-1993. The consequences of the drought on electricity-generating capacity caused the government to commission the construction or upgrading of 10 thermoelectric power plants. Half will be coal-fired, and half will be fired by natural gas . The government also has begun awarding bids for the construction of a natural gas pipeline system that will extend from the country's extensive gas fields to its major population centers. Plans call for this project to make natural gas available to millions of Colombian households by the middle of the next decade.
The following are the most important Colombian companies:
- Ecopetrol : The fourth largest oil company in Latin America.
- Suramericana de Inversiones : The largest retirement plan management company in Latin America.
- Avianca : The third largest airline in Latin America.
- Coomeva : The third largest cooperative in Latin America.
- Grupo Aval : One of Colombia's largest holding company. It is owned by Luis Carlos Sarmiento Angulo .
[ 編輯 ] 旅遊
For many years serious internal armed conflict deterred tourists from visiting Colombia, with official travel advisories warning against travel to the country. However, in recent years numbers have risen sharply, thanks to improvements in security resulting from former President Álvaro Uribe's "democratic security" strategy, which has included significant increases in military strength and police presence throughout the country and pushed rebel groups further away from the major cities, highways and tourist sites likely to attract international visitors. Foreign tourist visits were predicted to have risen from 0.5 million in 2003 to 1.3 million in 2007, [ 78 ] while Lonely Planet picked Colombia as one of their top ten world destinations for 2006. [ 79 ] In 2010, tourism in Colombia increased 11% according to UNWTO Tourism Highlights for that year. [ 80 ]
In 2011 Colombia received 3 million foreign visitors, according to official statistics. [ 81 ]
Popular tourist attractions include the historic Candelaria district of central Bogotá, the walled city and beaches of Cartagena , the colonial towns of Santa Fe de Antioquia , Popayán , Villa de Leyva and Santa Cruz de Mompox , and the Las Lajas Sanctuary and the Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá . Tourists are also drawn to Colombia's numerous festivals , including Feria de Cali (Carnaval of Cali), the Barranquilla Carnival , the Carnival of Blacks and Whites in Pasto , Flower Fair in Medellín and the Ibero-American Theater Festival in Bogotá. Meanwhile, because of the improved security, Caribbean cruise ships now stop at Cartagena and Santa Marta .
The great variety in geography, flora and fauna across Colombia has also resulted in the development of an ecotourist industry, concentrated in the country's national parks . Popular ecotourist destinations include: along the Caribbean coast, the Tayrona National Natural Park in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range and Cabo de la Vela on the tip of the Guajira Peninsula ; the Nevado del Ruiz volcano , the Cocora valley and the Tatacoa Desert in the central Andean region , the Farallones de Cali National Natural Park , in the departament of Valle del Cauca ; Amacayacu National Park in the Amazon River basin ; and the Pacific islands of Malpelo and Gorgona , there other unique landscapes like the river of the seven colors in Meta. Colombia is home to seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites .
|Tourism in Colombia|
| Cartagena de Indias |
| Salt Cathedral, Zipaquirá |
| San Agustín |
| Cabo of the Vela |
| Park Tayrona |
| Bocas of Ceniza, Barranquilla |
| Sierra Nevada Cocuy |
| Las Lajas Cathedral, Ipiales |
| San Andrés Island |
San Andrés y Providencia
| Villa of Leyva |
| Pueblito Paisa, Medellín |
| Lost City |
| Castle Museum, Medellín |
| Eje Cafetero |
Quindio , Risaralda and Caldas
| Santa Marta |
| Park Amacayacu |
| Canyon of Chicamocha |
| Island Gorgona |
[ 編輯 ] 交通
Colombia has a network of national highways maintained by the Instituto Nacional de Vías or INVIAS (National Institute of Roadways) government agency under the Ministry of Transport . The Pan-American Highway travels through Colombia, connecting the country with Venezuela to the east and Ecuador to the south.
Colombia's main airports are El Dorado International Airport in Bogotá, Jose Maria Cordova International Airport in Medellín, Alfonso Bonilla Aragon International Airport in Cali, Rafael Nuñez International Airport in Cartagena, Ernesto Cortissoz International Airport in Barranquilla, and Matecaña International Airport in Pereira. El Dorado International Airport is the busiest airport in Latin America based upon the number of flights and the weight of goods transported. [ 84 ] Several national ( Avianca , Copa Airlines Colombia , LAN Colombia , SATENA , EasyFly and VivaColombia ) and international airlines ( Iberia , American Airlines , Varig , Copa , Continental , Delta , Air Canada , Spirit , Lufthansa , Air France , Aerolíneas Argentinas , Aerogal , TAME , TACA , JetBlue Airways , LAN Airlines ) operate from El Dorado. Because of its central location in Colombia and America, it is preferred by national land transportation providers, as well as national and international air transportation providers.
Urban transport systems are developed in Bogotá and Medellín. Traffic congestion in Bogotá has greatly exacerbated by the lack of rail transport. However, this problem has been alleviated somewhat by the development of the TransMilenio bus rapid and restriction of vehicles through a ban on all day, the rotation of passenger cars based on the number of plates called Pico and plate. Bogotá system consists of bus and minibus services run by both private and public sector. Since 1995 Medellín had a street railway known as the ' Metro de Medellín ', which connects to most of the area Medellín Metropolitan. A high cable car system, Metrocable , was added in 2004 to link some of the poorest neighborhoods of Medellín mountain with the Metro of Medellín. In late 2011 a system of articulated buses, called Metroplus began operating in Medellín as well. A system called bus rapid transit Transmetro, similar to the TransMilenio in Bogotá, Barranquilla began operating in late 2007. Other cities have also been constructed systems of mass transportation. In Pereira, Colombia was opened in 2006 Megabús . In Bucaramanga in 2009 opened its doors in the mass transit system called Metrolinea . Currently, the city of Cartagena, Colombia is being built a transport system called massive Transcaribe . In other highly developed cities such as Cali constructed a system of articulated buses that changed the face of the city, in 2013 came into operation a system of high modern cable car.
[ edit ] Colombia dry canal
China and Colombia have discussed a Panama Canal rival, a 'Dry Canal' 220 km rail link between the Pacific and a new city near Cartagena . China is Colombia's second largest trade partner after the USA. Colombia is also the world's fifth-largest coal producer, but most is currently exported via Atlantic ports while demand is growing fastest across the Pacific. A dry canal could make Colombia a hub where imported Chinese goods would be assembled for re-export throughout the Americas and Latin American raw materials would begin the return journey to China. [ 85 ]
[ edit ] Inequity and armed conflict
Colombia has the third largest economy in Latin America, but income and wealth are unevenly distributed. [ 86 ] [ 87 ] According to a 2006 report by the National University of Colombia, only 13.8% of total income is allocated to the poorest half of the population, while the wealthiest 10% of the population benefit from 46.5%. [ 88 ] The wide income gap between rich and poor compounds the country's poverty issues. According to a 2011 United Nations report, Colombia was one of the seven most unequal countries in the world during 2010. [ 89 ]
Inequity regarding land ownership has also been a long existing problem in Colombia, prompting the formation of left-wing guerrilla groups during the 1950s and 1960s. As counteraction, adversaries backed by powerful landowners established rightwing paramilitary organizations. Internal contention intensified by civil war in the 1980s, which was chiefly provoked by the cocaine trade. Although the state of conflict has calmed tremendously in recent years, over 3.2 million individuals have been internally displaced during the confrontation—a figure so high that it falls only second to that of Sudan. [ 90 ]
Around one third of the people in Colombia have been affected in some way by the ongoing armed conflict. The FARC is the leading guerilla in Colombia. Those with direct personal experience make up 10% of the population and many others also report suffering a range of serious hardships. Overall, 31% have been affected on a personal level or as a result of the wider consequences of the conflict. [ 91 ] During the 1990s, an estimated 35,000 people died as a result of the armed conflict. [ 92 ] Trade unions in Colombia are included among the victimized groups with over 2,800 of their members being murdered between 1986 and 2010. [ 93 ]
Inadequacies in land allocation have failed to diminish in recent years, further contributing to Colombia's health, income and societal inequity struggles. [ 94 ] Inequitable land ownership is more problematic in rural areas of the country. Statistics indicate that 1.5% of landowners own 52% of rural territory. The lack of fair land availability prevents local farmers from cultivating usable terrain for agricultural purposes, hindering income distribution and further exacerbating the poverty gap. Poverty inflicts rural areas in greater magnitude than that of urban areas. While 39% of the urban population is considered poor and another 9% is considered extremely poor (under the level of misery), 62% of the rural population is considered poor with an additional 22% considered extremely poor. [ 95 ] The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), classifies poverty by those earning a monthly income of less than 281,384 Col pesos (143 USD) and extreme poverty those earning less than 120,588 Col Pesos (61 USD). [ 96 ]
According to the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and its Statistical Yearbook 2009 , figures for 2005 indicated that Colombia had a national Gini coefficient of 0.584 and an urban Gini of 0.587 [ 97 ] In 2009, the DANE reported that 45.5% of Colombians were living below the poverty line and 16.6% in "extreme poverty". [ 98 ] [ 99 ] [ 100 ] The Colombian government has since claimed to establish a state-funded program aiming to bring at least one million families out from extreme poverty status. [ 96 ]
[ 編輯 ] 人口統計學
With an estimated 46 million people in 2008, Colombia is the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico. It is also home to the third-largest number of Spanish speakers in the world after Mexico and Spain. It is slightly ahead of Argentina by almost 6 million people. At the outset of the 20th century, Colombia's population was approximately 4 million. [ 101 ] The population increased at a rate of 1.9% between 1975 and 2005, predicted to drop to 1.2% over the next decade. Colombia is projected to have a population of 50.7 million by 2015. These trends are reflected in the country's age profile. In 2005 over 30% of the population was under 15 years old, compared to just 5.1% aged 65 and over.
The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast . The nine eastern lowland departments, comprising about 54% of Colombia's area, have less than 3% of the population and a density of less than one person per square kilometer (two persons per square mile). Traditionally a rural society, movement to urban areas was very heavy in the mid-20th century, and Colombia is now one of the most urbanized countries in Latin America. The urban population increased from 31% of the total in 1938 to 60% in 1975, and by 2005 the figure stood at 72.7%. [ 69 ] [ 102 ] The population of Bogotá alone has increased from just over 300,000 in 1938 to approximately 8 million today. In total seventy one cities now have populations of 100,000 or more (2013). As of 2010 Colombia has the world's largest populations of internally displaced persons (IDPs), estimated up to 4.5 million people. [ 103 ] [ 104 ]
The life expectancy is 74.79 years, infant mortality of 15.92 per thousand. [ 106 ]
Colombia is ranked third in the world in the Happy Planet Index .
|Largest cities or towns of Colombia |
[ 109 ]
|排名||City name||Department||流行音樂。||排名||City name||Department||流行音樂。|
|1||Bogotá||波哥大||7,571,345||11||Santa Marta||Magdalena||485,112|| |
|3||Cali||Valle del Cauca||3,225,580||13||Pasto||Nariño||422,618|
|5||Cartagena de Indias||玻利瓦爾||1,492,545||15||Manizales||Caldas||402,972|
|6||Cúcuta||Norte de Santander||1,358,676||16||Montería||科爾多瓦（Córdoba）||400,790|
|9||Ibagué||Tolima||600000||19||Buenaventura||Valle del Cauca||369,753|
[ 編輯 ] 族群
According to the 2005 census, 49% of the population is Mestizo , or of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry. Approximately 37% is of European ancestry (predominantly Spanish, partly Italian , Portuguese , and German ). About 10.6% is of African ancestry, whereas Indigenous Amerindians comprise 3.4% of the population. [ 11 ] Other sources claim that up to 29% of Colombians (13 million people) have some African ancestry. [ 110 ] The 2005 census reported that the "non-ethnic population", consisting of whites and mestizos (those of mixed white European and Amerindian ancestry, including almost all of the urban business and political elite), constituted 86% of the national population. The 86% figure is subdivided in to 49% mestizo and 37% white. [ 111 ]
The overwhelming majority of Colombians speak Spanish (see also Colombian Spanish ), but in total 101 languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database, of which 80 are spoken today. Most of these belong to the Chibchan , Arawak and Cariban language families. There are currently about 500,000 speakers of indigenous languages. [ 112 ]
The various groups exist in differing concentrations throughout the nation, in a pattern that to some extent goes back to colonial origins. The whites tend to live mainly in the urban centers, particularly in Bogotá and the burgeoning highland cities. The populations of the major cities are primarily white and mestizo. The large mestizo population includes most campesinos (people living in rural areas) of the Andean highlands where the Spanish conquerors had mixed with the women of Amerindian chiefdoms . Mestizos had always lived in the cities as well, as artisans and small tradesmen, and they have played a major part in the urban expansion of recent decades, as members of the working class. [ 113 ]
[ 編輯 ] 土著人民
Before the Spanish colonization of what is now Colombia, the territory was home to a significant number of indigenous peoples. Many of these were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty-five distinct cultures. 567 reserves ( resguardos ) established for indigenous peoples occupy 365,004 square kilometres (over 30% of the country's total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people in over 67,000 families. [ 115 ] The 1991 constitution established their native languages as official in their territories, and most of them have bilingual education (native and Spanish).
Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu , [ 116 ] the Arhuacos , the Muisca , the Kuna , the Paez , the Tucano and the Guahibo . Cauca , La Guajira and Guainia have the largest indigenous populations.
The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia, who comprise some 800,000 people – roughly 2% of the population.
In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 .
[ edit ] Immigrant groups
The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Colombia consisted of Spanish colonists , following the arrival of Europeans in 1499. However a number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and, in smaller numbers, Poles , Lithuanians , English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War. Today is a major migration trend of Venezuelans, due to the political and economic situation in Venezuela. [ 117 ] [ 118 ]
Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese and Arabs , Sephardi Jews , Roma . There are also important communities of Chinese and Japanese.
Black Africans were brought as slaves , mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century. Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The population of the department of Chocó , running along the northern portion of Colombia's Pacific coast, is over 80% black. [ 119 ]
[ 編輯 ] 宗教
The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. However, based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity, [ 120 ] the vast majority of which (between 81% and 90%) are Roman Catholic. About 1% of Colombians adhere to indigenous religions and under 1% to Judaism, Islam, Hinduism , and Buddhism . However, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo reported that they did not practice their Catholic faith actively. [ 121 ]
Like the rest of Latin America, Colombia is seeing a continuous increase of Protestant adherents, most of them being converts from Catholicism to Protestantism. Now Protestants constitute between 10 to 13% of the Colombian population [ 122 ] While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the 1991 Colombian constitution guarantees freedom and equality of religion. [ 123 ] Before the constitution guaranteed freedom of religion, Catholicism was the official states religion. After the 1991 constitution, there was a separation between the Catholic Church and the state.
Today opened the possibility to a great diversity of beliefs, including the activity of atheists who made the first World Congress of atheists in Bogota in the year 2001. [ 124 ]
[ 編輯 ] 健康
Life expectancy at birth in 2005 was 72.3 years; 2.1% of the population would not reach the age of 5, and 9.2% would not reach the age of 40; [ 69 ] the life expectancy increased to 74.79 years by 2012. [ 11 ] Health standards in Colombia have improved very much since the 1980s. A 1993 reform transformed public health-care funding by shifting the burden of subsidy from providers to users. As a result, employees have been obligated to pay into health plans to which employers also contribute. Although this new system has widened population coverage by the social and health security system from 21% (pre-1993) to 56% in 2004 and 66% in 2005, health disparities persist, with the poor continuing to suffer relatively high mortality rates. In 2002 Colombia had 58,761 physicians, 23,950 nurses, and 33,951 dentists; these numbers equated to 1.35 physicians, 0.55 nurses, and 0.78 dentists per 1,000 population, respectively.
[ edit ] Health tourism
Health tourism sector is an activity by which, today, many people in the world travel to their place of origin to other countries to undergo medical treatment and, at the same time, meet the interest of nations visited. In this sense, and no matter that several institutions are still in Colombia international accreditation process, the potential is vast. For the quality of the medical professionals, a good number of health institutions and the huge inventory of attractions, natural and architectural, Colombia is projected as one of the top destinations in Latin America in the health tourism product. [ 125 ]
Cities like Bogota , Cali , and Medellin are the most visited to perform cosmetic surgery and dental treatment for their high quality. In the city of Cali are made about 50,000 (2010) cosmetic surgery procedures per year, of which around 14,000 patients from abroad. [ 126 ]
[ 編輯 ] 教育
The educational experience of many Colombian children begins with attendance at a preschool academy until age five ( Educación preescolar ). Basic education ( Educación básica ) is compulsory by law. [ 128 ] It has two stages: Primary basic education ( Educación básica primaria ) which goes from first to fifth grade – children from six to ten years old, and Secondary basic education ( Educación básica secundaria ), which goes from sixth to ninth grade. Basic education is followed by Middle vocational education ( Educación media vocacional ) that comprises the tenth and eleventh grades. It may have different vocational training modalities or specialties (academic, technical, business, and so on.) according to the curriculum adopted by each school.
After the successful completion of all the basic and middle education years, a high-school diploma is awarded. The high-school graduate is known as a bachiller , because secondary basic school and middle education are traditionally considered together as a unit called bachillerato (sixth to eleventh grade). Students in their final year of middle education take the ICFES test (now renamed Saber 11) in order to gain access to higher education ( Educación superior ). This higher education includes undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies.
Bachilleres (high-school graduates) may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; these programs last up to five years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies), even as much to six to seven years for some careers, such as medicine. In Colombia, there is not an institution such as college; students go directly into a career program at a university or any other educational institution to obtain a professional, technical or technological title. Once graduated from the university, people are granted a (professional, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the career they have chosen. For some professional career programs, students are required to take the Saber-Pro test, formerly known as ECAES, in their final year of undergraduate academic education. [ 129 ]
Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in 2006 was 4.7% – one of the highest rates in Latin America – as compared with 2.4% in 1991. This represented 14.2% of total government expenditure. [ 69 ] [ 130 ] In 2006, the primary and secondary net enrollment rates stood at 88% and 65% respectively. School-life expectancy was 12.4 years. [ 130 ] A total of 92.3% of the population aged 15 and older were recorded as literate, including 97.9% of those aged 15–24, both figures slightly higher than the regional average. [ 130 ]
|年齡||3 years old||4 years old||5 years old||6 years old||7 years old||8 years old||9 years old||10 years old||11 years old||12 years old||13 years old||14 years old||15 years old||16 years old|
|水平||Preschool academy||Primary basic education||Secondary basic education||Middle vocational education|
|Higher Education in Colombia|
|Plaza Che, National University of Colombia||Faculty of Engineering: The Plaza University of Valle ( Cali )||Facultad de Minas, National University of Colombia , in ( Medellín )||Mario Laserna Building, University of the Andes ( Bogotá )|
|Main square of the Externado University of Colombia ( Bogotá )||Faculty of Medicine, Military University Nueva Granada ( Bogotá ).||Saint Thomas Aquinas University , (Bogotá). Founded in 1580, is the oldest university in Colombia.||Faculty of Human Sciences, Industrial University of Santander ( Bucaramanga )|
|Faculty of Medicine, University of Cartagena ( Cartagena ).||University of Cauca ( Popayán ),||Rosary University (Bogotá).||Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia (Medellín).|
|Faculty of engineering, District University of Bogotá , (Bogotá).||Pontifical Xavierian University (Bogotá).||National Pedagogic University (Bogotá).||Central Library, Pontifical Bolivarian University (Medellín).|
[ 編輯 ] 文化
Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a wide range of cultural influences. Native American , Spanish and other European , African , American , Caribbean, and Middle Eastern influences, as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture. Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression.
Historically, the country's imposing landscape left its various regions largely isolated from one another, resulting in the development of very strong regional identities, in many cases stronger than the national. Modern transport links and means of communication have mitigated this and done much to foster a sense of nationhood. Accent, dress, music, food, politics and general attitude vary greatly between the Bogotanos and other residents of the central highlands, the paisas of Antioquia and the coffee region , the costeños of the Caribbean coast , the llaneros of the eastern plains, and the inhabitants of the Pacific coast and the vast Amazon region to the south east.
|Shakira , pop singer, from Barranquilla in the Atlántico Department .||Juanes , pop singer.||Sofía Vergara , actress.||John Leguizamo , Actor, Comedian.||Camilo Villegas , golf player.||Juan Pablo Montoya , former F1 racer and currently a NASCAR driver.|
|Colombians dancing of Cali Salsa style.||Colombians in the Carnival of Barranquilla , this Carnival was proclaimed by UNESCO , as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity .||Feria de Cali (known as the world capital of salsa or the birthplace of goddess).||Blacks and Whites' Carnival, Also the UNESCO declared it as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.||Fiesta in Palenque. Afro-Colombian tradition from San Basilio de Palenque , a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity since 2005.||Festival of the Flowers in Medellín , Antioquia .|
An inheritance from the colonial era , Colombia remains a deeply Roman Catholic country and maintains a large base of Catholic traditions which provide a point of unity for its multicultural society. Colombia has many celebrations and festivals throughout the year, and the majority are rooted in these Catholic religious traditions. However, many are also infused with a diverse range of other influences. Prominent examples of Colombia's festivals include the Feria de Cali , Barranquilla Carnival , the Carnival of Blacks and Whites Pasto, Nariño , Medellín's Festival of the Flowers and Bogotá's Ibero-American Theater Festival
The mixing of various ethnic traditions is reflected in Colombia's music and dance. The most well-known Colombian genres are cumbia and vallenato , the latter now strongly influenced by global pop culture . A powerful and unifying cultural medium in Colombia is television . Notably, the telenovela Betty La Fea has gained international success through localized versions in the United States, Mexico, and elsewhere. Television has also played a role in the development of the local film industry .
The language spoken is as well a matter of pride, having as many accents as cultural regions. Results special the orthodoxy in the use of the Spanish language, since the times of the creation of the Academia de la Lengua , just second in terms of relevance to the Real Academia Española , in Europe.
Famous Colombians include:
- Nobel Prize winning author Gabriel García Márquez
- Actor, film producer, voice artist, and comedian, John Leguizamo .
- Writers Fernando Vallejo , Laura Restrepo and Álvaro Mutis
- Plastic artist Fernando Botero
- Neuroscientist, and currently the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the NYU School of Medicine, Rodolfo Llinás
- Professor of microbiology and inventor, with particular expertise in biogenesis, winner of the NASA Technology Award. 2003. Raul Cuero
- Colombian-American threat analyst and "grey hat" hacker, Adrian Lamo
- Musicians Shakira , Juanes , Carlos Vives , Joe Arroyo and Fanny Lú
- Actress Sofía Vergara , Catalina Sandino Moreno and actor John Leguizamo
- Olympic-winners Mariana Pajón , Maria Isabel Urrutia , Helmut Bellingrodt , Diego Fernando Salazar , Rigoberto Urán , Óscar Figueroa , Caterine Ibargüen , Clemente Rojas , Alfonso Pérez , Jorge Julio Rocha , Ximena Restrepo , Mabel Mosquera , María Luisa Calle , Jackeline Rentería , Yuri Alvear , Carlos Mario Oquendo
- Athletes Juan Pablo Montoya in NASCAR, Edgar Rentería and Orlando Cabrera in Major League Baseball, and Camilo Villegas in professional golf.
- Soccer players Falcao (Atlético Madrid) and Mario Yepes (AC MIlan), and retired players Carlos Valderrama , Iván Ramiro Córdoba , Faustino Asprilla and Freddy Rincón
- Andrés Orozco-Estrada Houston Symphony Orchestra music director. He replaces Hans Graf, who has led the orchestra for 12 years and who will continue as conductor laureate [ 131 ]
|Rodolfo Llinás is a neuroscientist, known for his pioneering work on the inferior olive, on the squid giant synapse and on human magnetoencephalography (MEG).||The first external artificial pacemaker with internal electrodes was invented by the Colombian electrical engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo .||The Colombian neurosurgeon, researcher, and inventor Salomón Hakim is known for the invention of valve to treat normal pressure hydrocephalus and for being a pioneer in the field of neurohydrodynamics .|
As in many Latin American countries, Colombians have a passion for association football. The Colombian national football team is seen as a symbol of unity and national pride.
The Colombian cuisine developed mainly from the food traditions of European countries. Spanish , Italian and French culinary influences can all be seen in Colombian cooking. The cuisine of neighboring Latin American countries , Mexico , the United States and the Caribbean , as well as the cooking traditions of the country's indigenous inhabitants, have all influenced Colombian food. For example, cuy or macliona, which is an indigenous cuisine, is eaten in the Andes region of south-western Colombia.
Many national symbols , both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia's diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common. Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture .
[ 編輯 ] 流行文化
The depiction of Colombia in popular culture, especially the portrayal of Colombian people in film and fiction, has been asserted by Colombian organizations [ 132 ] [ 133 ] [ 134 ] and government to be largely negative and has raised concerns that it reinforces, or even engenders, stereotypes, societal prejudice and discrimination due to association with poverty, narcotics trafficking, terrorism and other criminal elements. [ 135 ] These stereotypes are considered unfair by many Colombians. [ 136 ] [ 137 ] The Colombian government funded the "Colombia es Pasión" and "La Respuesta es Colombia" advertisement campaign as an attempt to improve Colombia's image abroad, with mixed results. [ 138 ] [ 139 ]
[ 編輯 ] 文學
Colombian literature dating back to Spanish colonial times, during highlighting Hernando Domínguez Camargo , with the epic poem to San Ignacio de Loyola, Juan Rodríguez Freyle ( The Ram ) and nun Francisca Josefa Castle representative mysticism . In the post-independence literature linked to Romanticism highlighted Antonio Nariño , José Fernández Madrid , Camilo Torres Tenorio and Francisco Antonio Zea . In the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century popularized the genre costumbrista , with the best examples of Thomas Carrasquilla , Jorge Isaacs and Rafael Pombo (highlighted in the genre of children's literature). Within that period, authors like Jose Asuncion Silva , Joseph Eustasio Rivera , Leon de Greiff , Porfirio Barba-Jacob and José María Vargas Vila , developed movement modernist . In 1871 Colombia was established in the first academy of the Spanish Language in Latin. [ 140 ]
Between 1939 and 1940 he published seven books in Bogotá poetry of considerable impact on the country, under the name " Stone and Sky ", which were edited by the poet Jorge Rojas . [ 141 ] In the following decade, Gonzalo Arango founded the movement of nothingness in response to the violence of the time, [ 142 ] influenced by nihilism, existentialism, and the thought of another great Colombian writer: Fernando González Ochoa . During the call boom in Latin American literature emerged successful writers led by Nobel laureate Gabriel García Márquez and his magnum opus One Hundred Years of Solitude , Eduardo Caballero Calderon , Manuel Mejía Vallejo and Álvaro Mutis , only Colombian awarded prizes Cervantes and Prince of Asturias . Other leading contemporary authors are Fernando Vallejo (Rómulo Gallegos Prize) and German Castro Caycedo , writer who sells more books in Colombia after García Márquez. [ 143 ]
[ 編輯 ] 視覺藝術
Colombian painting and sculpture are divided into periods beginning with indigenous cultures, and they approach the ways of thinking of the native peoples of America and its way of conceiving the world, the sacred, nature and society. [ 144 ]
The colonial period shows Colombian indigenous cultural fusion, the African contribution religious and European art of the time.
The Colombian art of nineteenth century no independence from colonial aesthetic conceptions completely, but at the end of that century the first attempts are academic. In 1886 opened the 'National School of Fine Arts' , an organization that formed most of the artists of the early twentieth century.
The twentieth century belatedly received the painting and contemporary sculpture in Colombia.
Among the major Colombian painters excel Impressionist Andrés de Santa Maria portraitists Ricardo Acevedo Bernal and Ricardo Gómez Campuzano , the figurativistas Dario Morales , David Manzur and Diego Mazuera , the landscaper Gonzalo Ariza , the expressionist Débora Arango and muralist Ignacio Gomez Jaramillo . In sculpture stand Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt and Nadin Ospina . However there are many Colombian artists who have developed his work in painting and sculpture. Such is the case of Fernando Botero , famous for its monumental character, Enrique Grau , Francisco Antonio Cano , Luis Alberto Acuña Tapias , Santiago Martinez Delgado , Juan Antonio Roda , Beatriz Gonzalez , Omar Ray , Eduardo Ramírez Villamizar , and the Colombian-Spanish Alejandro Obregón and others who have achieved international recognition. Multifaceted artists also like Pedro Nel Gómez have extended their work to the field of architecture.
In photography stands Leo Matiz Espinoza , who in 1949 was voted one of the ten best photographers in the world. [ 146 ] Have also been highlighted Luis Garcia Hevia , Meliton Rodriguez , Hernan Diaz , Abdu Eljaiek , Manuel H ., Nereo López , Carlos Caicedo , Ignacio Gaitán , Sady Gonzalez , Luis Benito Ramos and Jose Crisanto Lopez .
[ 編輯 ] 音樂
It is popularly recognized as the national rhythms bambuco (early twentieth century), the cumbia (mid-twentieth century) and vallenato (the late twentieth century, early XXI). Different genres of folk music in Colombia elements have been influenced by Spanish, African and Amerindian ethnography formed the country as well as other Latin American and Anglo currents that have constituted Colombian music as one of the most rich in the region in recent years leading to the recognition of several Colombian international performers.
Colombian music is promoted mainly by the support of major record companies, independent companies and to a lesser extent by the government of Colombia, through the Ministry of Culture. In a decentralized the National Culture through the National Music Council advises the government on behalf of musical and each of the six regions of the country. [ 147 ] The Society of Authors and Composers of Colombia (Sayco) and the Colombian Association of Performers and producers of phonograms (Acinpro) are the organizations responsible for collecting and distributing property rights generated by the use of the works to their authors and foreign affiliates that make affiliates of the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) . [ 148 ]
[ edit ] Theater and cinema
The 'Theatre in Colombia' was introduced during the time of Spanish colonization in 1560 with zarzuela companies. [ 149 ] The theater in Colombia is mainly supported by the Ministry of Culture and various entities affiliated state or private character. The Iberoamerican Theater Festival is a cultural event originated in Bogota, international character which is held every two years in Bogota, Colombia, and was directed and produced, until his death in August 2008, Fanny Mikey , actress and cultural entrepreneur in Colombia nationalized Argentine origin. It is the cultural event of the highest importance in Colombia and one of the performing arts festivals in the world. Other important theater events are: the International Puppet Festival Fanfare (Medellín) , the Latin American Festival of Theater of Manizales , the International Theater Festival Caribbean (Santa Marta) and the national and international art festival of popular culture "Cultural Invasion" (Bogotá) '.
Colombian film, like any national cinema, is a historical process with an industrial and artistic dimension. Colombian cinema has failed to be profitable as an industry throughout its history, which has prevented any continuity in production and employment of filmmakers and technicians. During the first decades of century there were some companies that tried to maintain a constant level of production but lack of financial support and strong foreign competition eventually frustrate initiatives. In 1980 the newly created Film Development Company (FOCINE) at the state, allowed to undertake some productions. However, the company had to be liquidated in the early 1990. Today we are experiencing a growing film industry through the Film Act passed in 2003 that has allowed the country reborn initiatives around the film industry.
[ 編輯 ] 媒體
The newspaper of national circulation is El Tiempo of Casa Editorial El Tiempo (CEET) [ 150 ] belonging in part to the Family Santos which is a member of the President of the Republic. The second most important is El Espectador , until recently a weekly. They are also Space , The Republic , Portfolio (part of the CEET), and less circulation, El Nuevo Siglo and Diario Deportivo .Several newspapers under the name of "national" really limited to major cities. The regional newspapers have a significant body of readers, among them are El Colombiano , Medellin, El País , of Cali, El Heraldo , Barranquilla, and Vanguardia Liberal , Bucaramanga, among others. The country launched a smaller daily as competition to local tabloids. So did the CEET, which also has a television and other media such as ADN , a free newspaper with national circulation that changes its content according to the locality in which it is published. The Semanario Voz , national circulation, is best known within the "alternative" press.
The Television in Colombia has two national public channels: the Canal Uno , state-owned but privately run programs, and Señal Colombia , channel of culture . Private channels, RCN and Caracol are the highest-rated and is in discussion to launch a third, but still has not opened the bidding. The regional channels cover a department or more and its content is made in these particular areas. Canal Capital , Bogota DC, and Teleantioquia , are directed only to those departments, although the latter also broadcasts programs for the Chocó. Telecafé , covers Risaralda, Quindio and Caldas Telecaribe , addressed to the people of the Costa Caribbean , Telepacífico , although its content is largely vallecaucano, also targets Cauca, Nariño and to a lesser extent, Chocó, East Regional Television (TRO) focuses on the Santanderes; Canal 13 is the most ambitious attempt to cover Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Tolima and Huila, with the vast territories of the Orinoco and the Amazon. Teleislas covers the archipelago of San Andres and Providencia, sparsely populated but very particular identity and stories. Everyone is watching the Autoridad Nacional de Televisión , a control body, the same level as the Bank of the Republic. Most homes have private television cable. Telmex , Cable Union , Vision Satellite and Direct TV are national in scope, however, much of the coverage is carried out at the regional medium enterprises.
[ 編輯 ] 風味
From the diversity of fauna and flora in Colombia arises essentially varied cuisine Creole, with little influence of foreign cuisines. The Colombian dishes in preparation and ingredients vary by region and incorporate the traditions of Spanish culture, mestizo and Afro. Some of the most common ingredients in the preparations are cereals such as rice and maize, tubers such as Pope and cassava , varieties of legumes (beans), meat as vaccine, chicken, pork, goat, guinea pigs and other wildlife, fish and seafood. It is important also the variety of tropical fruits such as mango , the banana , the papaya , the guava , the pineapple , the lulo , and passionfruit .
Colombia does not have a national dish, although very recognized the stew and corn bread in its various forms. Among the most representative regional dishes include the ajiaco santafereño , the bandeja paisa , the mote de queso , the lechona tolimense , the mamona or veal plains, the mute santandereano , the tamales and fish, especially in coastal regions. [ 152 ]
In the Caribbean Coast the most popular dish is the sancocho , which varies in preparation and ingredients: tripe stew, rib, of soup guandú with salted meat , cottontail, fish, shellfish, turtle, chicken and goat, among other species. [ 153 ] Other dishes are fried like arepa s made from corn (also can be roasted), of which the egg is the most famous, the empanada , the patacón , the carimañolas based on cassava, friche (made from the entrails of the goat) and kibbeh ; dairy as the cheese costeño and serum atollabuey , especially accompanying bollo corn or cassava, fish in various preparations as bocachico or tilapia, seafood casserole, seafood cocktails, rice as the coconut rice and lisa rice forest animals in different preparations as Icotea, fried turtle or Pisingo; sweet as enyucado, the cakes or coconut candies, beverages like the sugar water , the Raspao , corozo juice and tamarind refreshment and between alcoholic drinks, rum, fruits like leg , the guava , the zapote , the medlar , the anon , the guava , the tamarind , the corozo and cashew and multiple preparations as cayeye , the botifarras , cabeza de gato , cake and hayaca , among others. [ 153 ]
In the Andean region are typical regional dishes tolimense (departments Tolima and Huila ) as lechona and tamales , rice with meat mixture, chicken, pork and soft grains wrapped in banana leaves. The kitchen offers cundiboyacense preparations as Masato , the chicha , the fried food and wines, among which stand out the changua or potato soup, stew santafereño, the ajiaco [ 154 ] and other specialties like cuchuco of pork spine, preparations of river fish like fish widower, [ 155 ] cubios mashed with ripe banana, bean stew and guatila, spinach cake, sweet as veleño sandwich, the foams curuba, custard of milk, curd with molasses, sweets and papayuela gooseberries, the cute and cake or custard Muisca almojábana. [ 156 ] In the Antioquia cooking highlighted ingredients like cocoa , sugar cane, corn, trout , beef, native fruits like guava and pineapple, bananas, beans and coffee. The bandeja paisa is the typical dish of this region and has sometimes been considered to be representative of Colombia dish. [ 157 ] Also include other dishes like fríjoles antioqueños , the sancocho Antioquia , the mondongo antioqueño , the hogao , the calentao , the pegao and arepa varieties: the traditional arepa paisa, arepas or corn pelao Santander to which peeling the corn in water with ash, yew and roasted in clay, and chocolo arepa with quesito antioqueño , among others, the "old clothes" and brandy with its variety of mistelas (Antioquia and the Coffee-Growers Axis ), among others. [ 157 ] Typical of Santander the fricassee, prepared with the entrails of goat and rice (rice with pumpkin seeds), the mute, the flesh oread; culonas ants, and black pudding , also known as fill. In the department of Nariño , in the southwest of the country bordering Ecuador, the most representative dish is the cuy . They are representative of Valle del Cauca chicken stew, the champús , the cholado , the lulada, rice atollao, the tamale valluno, the marranitas, puff pastries, the chancacas of Buenaventura , gelatins, the cream, tortilla soup, cake or cuaresmero hateño, the pandebono , cassava bread, oats Cali, the aborrajados , the empanadas, the bactris gasipaes , seafood in different preparations on the shores of the Pacific . [ 158 ]
In the Llanos Orientales , the mamona or veal dish is llanera.
[ 編輯 ] 體育
[ 編輯 ] 足球
Of all sports in Colombia, football ( soccer ) is the most popular. It is widely regarded as an important event in both national and international games. Oftentimes, football has been considered to be 'sacred' in Colombia due to its passionate fans who rival even those of nations like Brazil and Argentina. Despite winning very few international events, Colombia has produced outstanding players, thereby creating a positive reputation in the nation itself.
A golden era existed for the national team from the mid-1980s towards the late 1990s when it became one of the most powerful teams in football. The most noticeable players of the national team at the time were Carlos Valderrama and René Higuita .
Colombia was the champion of the 2001 Copa América , which they hosted and set a new record of being undefeated, conceding no goals and winning each match. Prior to that success they were runners-up to Peru in the 1975 Copa América . Interestingly, Colombia was the first team to win FIFA best mover in 1993 where the achievement was first introduced and the second team after Croatia to win it twice with the second being in 2013. [ 159 ]
The Colombian national football team has not qualified for a FIFA World Cup since 1998 although current players such as Radamel Falcao García , who was the first-ever player to score more than 15 goals (17) in one season in the UEFA Cup-Europa League during the 2010/2011 season, Fredy Guarín , Juan Cuadrado , Cristian Zapata , Abel Aguilar , Luis Muriel , Santiago Arias and James Rodríguez have restored hope in the Colombian national team. Colombia qualified for the World Cup in 1962, 1990, 1994, and 1998. Colombia is currently ranked 5th in the FIFA rankings.
The Colombia National Team is often found among the 10 best teams in the world in the FIFA World Rankings .
In club football, Atlético Nacional became the first Colombian club team to win the Copa Libertadores in 1989. Many of Colombia's star players of the golden era came from this team such as Andrés Escobar and René Higuita, among others. Once Caldas were the surprise winners of the 2004 Copa Libertadores and the second Colombian team to do so.
Colombia also hosted the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup .
[ 編輯 ] 騎自行車
The most outstanding cyclists are considered to come from the generation of "Beetles" in the 80´s. Among them the most recognized were Lucho Herrera and Fabio Parra , who achieved the top place in the podium of the Vuelta a España and the Tour de France . Santiago Botero was the World's Champion in the Against-the-Clock competition.See 'Campeonato Mundial de Ciclismo en Ruta' in Wikipedia in Spanish. For more information, see 'Café de Colombia (equipo ciclista)' in Wikipedia in Spanish.
[ 編輯 ] 棒球
Baseball, another sport rooted in the Caribbean Coast, Colombia was world amateur champion in 1947 and 1965. Baseball is popular in the Caribbean. Mainly in the cities, Cartagena , Barranquilla and Santa Marta . Of those cities have come good players like: Orlando Cabrera , Edgar Rentería [ 160 ] who was champion of the World Series in 1997 and 2010 , and others who have played in Major League Baseball . Overall for this area of the country, baseball is almost as popular as football (soccer).
Colombia has its own Colombian Professional Baseball League .
The Colombian Professional Baseball League is commonly divided into three eras: from 1948 to 1958, from 1979 to 1988, and from 1993 to the present. In the middle of 2004 the Colombian Professional Baseball League was accepted in the Caribbean Confederation of Professional Baseball, although for the moment they will not be allowed to participate in the Caribbean Series until the level of play and the quality of baseball facilities have been deemed to have improved. [ 161 ] The Colombian League reportedly intends to continue pursuing participation in the Caribbean Series in 2012.
The league added two teams for the 2010–11 season: the Potros de Medellín (Medellín Colts), based in Medellín , Colombia, and the Águilas de Bogotá (Bogotá Eagles), based in Bogotá , Colombia. Additionally, the Toros (Bulls) moved from Sincelejo to Cali for economic reasons.
It is sponsored in large part by Major League Baseball players as it is owned by the Renteria Foundation, a charity run by former Major League Baseball shortstop Edgar Rentería . [ 162 ] In addition, players such as former Major League Baseball shortstop Orlando Cabrera have owned teams. [ 163 ]
[ edit ] Taekwondo
Colombia has earned third place in World's Taekwondo Championship, just after Korea and United States of America. One Gold, one Silver and two Bronzes were won in this event, that has place in the country [ 164 ]
[ edit ] BMX
Mariana Pajón won a gold medal in the BMX Competition at the 2012 Summer Olympics. She was selected as the Best Latin American and the Caribbean Sportwoman, according to the poll carried out by the Cuban agency Prensa Latina in December 2012. [ 165 ]
[ edit ] Weightlifting
[ edit ] Boxing
Jonathan Romero , "Momo", is a Colombian boxer best known to qualify for the Olympics 2008 at bantamweight. He won the IBF Super Bantamweight on February 16, 2013 against Alejandro Lopez (24-3, 7 KOs) to claim the vacant title.
[ edit ] Car racing
Juan Pablo Montoya is a Colombian race car driver known internationally for participating in and winning Formula One and CART race competitions. Currently, he competes in NASCAR. The highlights of his career include winning the International F3000 championship in 1998, and the CART Championship Series in 1999, as well as victories in some of the most prestigious races in the world. He is the only driver to have won the premier North American open-wheel CART title, the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Daytona, all at the first attempt.
[ edit ] National symbols
Colombia's national symbols are representative elements within the country and outside the country. Both the flag, emblem and anthem are currently regulated by Law 12 of 1984 which dictates the general provisions of these symbols.
The Flag of Colombia , is described as a rectangle triband yellow, blue and red in 2:1:1 ratio, meaning three horizontal stripes, with yellow on top of it with half the width of the flag, blue in the middle occupying a quarter of the width and red below, occupying the last cuarto. Originated tricolor composition created in 1801 by General Francisco de Miranda , who described in his diary military use of primary colors as a flag to represent Latin American nations at that time were in the process of independence. It was definitively adopted on 26 November 1861. The meaning of the colors are: Yellow: represents all the gold found in the Colombian land. Blue: represents the seas on Colombia's shores. Red: represents the blood spilled on the battlegrounds by the heroes who gained Colombia's freedom.
The coat of arms of Colombia is considered the symbols of all symbols in Colombia. The coat of arms integrates the major symbols for which the Colombian identity prevails. It was updated by Protocol based in Decree 1967 of 1991 as stated in the Colombian Constitution of 1991 . The coat of arms of Colombia is only used in the center of the flag of the President of Colombia, war flag of Colombia and official documents. It can also be used for educational or display purposes within the guidelines of respect for the symbol.
The National Anthem of Colombia is composed of a choir and eleven stanzas and was written by President Rafael Núñez , originally as an ode to celebrate the independence of Cartagena. The music was composed by Italian Oreste Sindici at the behest of actor José Domingo Torres, under President Rafael Núñez and presented to the public for the first time on 11 November 1887. The song became very popular and was quickly adopted, but spontaneously, as the national anthem of Colombia.
[ 編輯 ] 參見
- Outline of Colombia
- Index of Colombia-related articles
- International rankings of Colombia
- List of Colombians
- National Library of Colombia
- United Nations Development Programme
[ 編輯 ]
- (Spanish) Constitution of Colombia, 1991 , Article 10.
- (Spanish) Colombia a country study, 2010 , pp. 86, 87.
- "Animated clock" . Colombian State Department . http://www.dane.gov.co/reloj/reloj_animado.php . Retrieved 4 February 2012 .
- "World Economic Outlook Database" . International Monetary Fund. April 2012 . http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2011&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=subject&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=99&pr1.y=11&c=311%2C336%2C213%2C263%2C313%2C268%2C316%2C343%2C339%2C273%2C218%2C278%2C223%2C283%2C228%2C288%2C233%2C293%2C238%2C361%2C321%2C362%2C243%2C364%2C248%2C366%2C253%2C369%2C328%2C298%2C258%2C299&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a= . Retrieved 11 September 2012 .
- "Gini Index" . World Bank . http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI/ . 2011年3月2日 。
- Indicadores Internacionales sobre Desarrollo Humano – PNUD . Hdr.undp.org. Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Gerhar Sandner, Beate Ratter, Wolf Dietrich Sahr and Karsten Horsx (1993). "Conflictos Territoriales en el Mar Caribe: El conflicto fronterizo en el Golfo de Venezuela" (in Spanish). Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango . http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/geografia/ctemc/ctemc03.htm . Retrieved 5 January 2008 .
- The Geographer Office of the Geographer Bureau of Intelligence and Research (15 April 1985). "Brazil-Colombia boundary" (PDF). International Boundary Study . http://www.law.fsu.edu/library/collection/LimitsinSeas/IBS174.pdf . Retrieved 5 January 2008 .
- CIA. "Ecuador" . World Fact Book . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ec.html . Retrieved 5 January 2008 .
- Nicolás del Castillo Mathieu (March 1992). "La primera vision de las costas Colombianas, Repaso de Historia" (in Spanish). Revista Credencial . http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/revistas/credencial/marzo1992/marzo3.htm . Retrieved 29 February 2008 .
- CIA world fact book. "Colombia" . CIA . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/co.html . Retrieved 24 May 2009 .
- Familia y Comunidad – Ritmos de Colombia . Colombiaaprende.edu.co. Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- "Paisajes naturales de Colombia" . Telepolis.com.歸檔從原 Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- Luis Fernando Potes. Megadiversidad . prodiversitas.bioetica.org
- "Q&A: Colombia's civil conflict" . BBC News . 23 December 2009 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1738963.stm .
- "2012 EPI :: Rankings | Environmental Performance Index" . Epi.yale.edu . http://epi.yale.edu/epi2012/rankings . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Data Explorer :: Country Profiles | Environmental Performance Index" . Epi.yale.edu . http://epi.yale.edu/dataexplorer/countryprofiles?iso=COL . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- Carlos Restrepo Piedrahita (February 1992). "El nombre "Colombia", El único país que lleva el nombre del Descubrimiento" (in Spanish). Revista Credencial . http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/revistas/credencial/febrero1992/febrero2.htm . Retrieved 29 February 2008 .
- Van der Hammen, T. and Correal, G. 1978: "Prehistoric man on the Sabana de Bogotá: data for an ecological prehistory"; Paleography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 25:179–190
- Broadbent, Sylvia 1965: Los Chibchas: organización socio-política. Série Latinoamericana 5. Bogotá: Facultad de Sociología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
- Simons, Geoff. Colombia: A Brutal History (London: Saqi, 2004), p. 19 ISBN 0863567584 .
- "The Story Of... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs" . Pbs.org . http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.html . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- The Cultural Space of Palenque de San Basilio . Unesco.org. Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Charles Bergquist and David J. Robinson (1997–2005). "Colombia" . Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005 . Microsoft Corporation. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009 . http://www.webcitation.org/5kwsWoGia . Retrieved 16 April 2006 . On 9 April 1948, Gaitán was assassinated outside his law offices in downtown Bogotá. The assassination marked the start of a decade of bloodshed, called La Violencia (the violence), which took the lives of an estimated 180,000 Colombians before it subsided in 1958.
- "Kidnapping on the rise for 1st time in decade" . Colombia Reports. 17 November 2010 . http://colombiareports.com/colombia-news/news/12941-kidnapping-on-the-rise-for-1st-time-in-decade.html . Retrieved 14 May 2011 .
- "Disminuir la tasa anual de homicidios por cada 100. 000 habitantes (Sin accidentes de transito)" (in Spanish). SIGOB . http://web.archive.org/web/20110724152808/https://www.sigob.gov.co/ind/indicadores.aspx?m=552 . Retrieved 15 March 2010 .
- "Homicidios 2002" (in Spanish) (PDF). Medicina Legal. pp. 38, 42 . http://www.medicinalegal.gov.co/drip/2002/Homicidios2002.pdf . Retrieved 16 May 2009 . [ dead link ]
- "Homicidios 2009" (in Spanish) (PDF). Medicina Legal. pp. 30, 35–37, 65 . http://www.medicinalegal.gov.co/drip/2009/2%20Forensis%202009%20Homicidios.pdf . Retrieved 19 November 2010 . [ dead link ]
- "Come to Sunny Colombia" The Economist , 29 June 2006.
- Comandante militar colombiano: FARC con 18.000 miembros están “muy débiles” | El Mercurio de Cuenca – Noticias de Cuenca Ecuador . Elmercurio.com.ec (27 December 2010). Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Colombia's Guerrillas: The Rebellion That Would Not Die , Time (magazine) , 16 July 2011.
- Ricard Cubillos. "Les hemos quitado a las Farc 12 mil milicianos, dice el Gobierno" . El Espectador . http://www.elespacio.com.co/archivo/106-pa13/pa13-3-2i/4823-les-hemos-quitado-a-las-farc-12-mil-milicianos-dice-el-gobierno . Retrieved 16 December 2012 .
- Redacción Justicia. "Seis frentes de las Farc quedaron sin jefe tras bombardeo en Meta" . El Tiempo . http://www.eltiempo.com/justicia/ARTICULO-WEB-NEW_NOTA_INTERIOR-11453504.html . Retrieved 16 December 2012 .
- "Obituary: Alfonso Cano" . BBC News . 5 November 2011 . http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-15604609 .
- "Colombia Farc rebels pick Timochenko as new leader" . BBC News . 15 November 2011 . http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-15749268 .
- Latin American Herald Tribune – FARC Guerrillas Kill Police Chief in Colombia . Laht.com (2 July 2008). Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Simon Romero (3 March 2011). "In Colombia, New Gold Rush Fuels Old Conflict" . The New York Times . http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/04/world/americas/04colombia.html?pagewanted=all .
- "Violence, Crime, and Illegal Arms Trafficking in Colombia" (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime . November 2006 . http://www.unodc.org/pdf/Colombia_Dec06_en.pdf .
- Erradicación de cultivos ilícitos es política de Estado . El Colombiano. Retrieved on 14 May 2012
- Perú pasó a ser el primer productor de cocaína del mundo . Peru 21 (26 July 2012). Retrieved on 27 October 2012
- Perú es primer productor de cocaína, superando a Bolivia y Colombia . La Republica (31 July 2012). Retrieved on 27 October 2012
- "Field Listing – Illicit drugs (by country)" . Cia.gov. Retrieved on 11 February 2013
- Colombia FARC y gobierno de Colombia concluyen ciclo de conversaciones en Cuba .United Press International ( February 11, 2013 ). Retrieved on 17 February 2013.
- Colombia 'ha mejorado en el clima político': Human Rights Watch . Caracol.com.co (11 October 2011). Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Colombia lidera Consejo de Seguridad de ONU en medio de crisis árabe – Política en Colombia y el Mundo . Eltiempo.Com (2 April 2011). Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Steve Slater (27 April 2010). "After BRICs, look to CIVETS for growth – HSBC CEO" . Reuters . http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/04/27/hsbc-emergingmarkets-idUSLDE63Q26Q20100427 .
- efe / bogotá (2012-12-31). "Colombia supera el millón de barriles de petróleo diarios" . ABC.es . http://www.abc.es/internacional/20121231/abci-colombia-petroleo-201212302111.html . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Tallest mountains by continent" . Mountainpeaks.net . http://www.mountainpeaks.net/tallest_mountain_by_continent.php . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango . Lablaa.org (13 July 2005). Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- "Phyllobates terribilis" (in español) . http://atlas.drpez.org/Phyllobates_terribilis . Retrieved 5 July 2008 .
- "Colombia: el desafío de la biodiversidad" (in español) . http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/science/newsid_4085000/4085309.stm . Retrieved 10 May 2008 .
- Delegatarios de países megadiversos. "Declaración de Cancún de países megadiversos afínes" (in español) . http://www.cdi.gob.mx/internacional/declaracion_de_cancun_de_paises_megadiversos_afines.pdf . Retrieved 16 May 2008 . [ dead link ]
- Isaías Tobasura Acuña. "Una visión integral de la Biodiversidad en Colombia" (in español) . http://lunazul.ucaldas.edu.co/downloads/cd41ee01Revista2_4.pdf . Retrieved 10 May 2008 .
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Canciller entrega reconocimiento a diplomáticos como embajadores del Medio Ambiente" (in español) . http://www.unodc.org/colombia/es/comunicado1708.html . Retrieved 18 May 2008 . [ dead link ]
- "Símbolos patrios" (in español) . http://web.presidencia.gov.co/asiescolombia/simbolos1.htm . Retrieved 22 May 2008 .
- "Dirección de Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia" (in Spanish) . http://www.parquesnacionales.gov.co/PNN/portel/libreria/php/decide.php?patron=01.01 . Retrieved 29 January 2013 .
- "Human Development Report: Deforestation, 2007/2008" . Hdrstats.undp.org . http://hdrstats.undp.org/indicators/217.html . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- "UNODC 2008 World Drug Report, Executive Summary" (PDF) . http://www.unodc.org/documents/wdr/WDR_2008/Executive%20Summary.pdf . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- "The World's Water" . Pacific Institute . 2008. pp. tables 1 . http://www.worldwater.org/data.html . Retrieved 1 February 2009 .
- Colombian Constitution. 1991
- Human Development Report: Military Personnel, 2007/2008 . Hdrstats.undp.org (4 November 2010). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
- Human Development Report: Military Expenditure, 2007/2008 . Hdrstats.undp.org (4 November 2010). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
- Hugh Bronstein (6 July 2008). "Reuters, Popularity of Colombia's Uribe soars after rescue" . Reuters . http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN06348039 . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- "Registraduria, Registraduria Nacional del Estado Civil" . Registraduria.gov.co. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23 . http://web.archive.org/web/20110523173620/http://registraduria.gov.co/index.php . Retrieved 1 June 2010 .
- "Banco de la República, Economic and Financial Data for Colombia" . Banrep.gov.co . http://www.banrep.gov.co/estad/dsbb/imfcolom.htm . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- "Income share held by highest 20%" . World Bank . http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.DST.05TH.20/countries . Retrieved 12 May 2012 .
- "Income share held by lowest 20%" . World Bank . http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.DST.FRST.20/countries . Retrieved 12 May 2012 .
- "Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population)" . World Bank . http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.2DAY . Retrieved 12 May 2012 .
- "Human Development Report for Colombia" . Hdrstats.undp.org . http://hdrstats.undp.org/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_COL.html . Retrieved 12 May 2012 .
- "La inflación en Colombia durante 2012 fue de 2,44%" . rcnradio.com. 23 January 2013 . http://www.rcnradio.com/noticias/la-inflacion-en-colombia-durante-2012-fue-de-244-42044 .
- International Trade Centre: Colombia Exports . intracen.org
- "International Colored Gemstone Association: Emerald" . Gemstone.org. 28 September 2001. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080821232509/http://www.gemstone.org/gem-by-gem/english/emerald.html . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- America's Flower Basket: Colombian Flowers and the American Marketplace . florverde.org
- Zonas Francas . zonafrancadelpacifico.com
- "Heritage Foundation, Index of Economic Freedom" . Heritage.org . http://www.heritage.org/Index/country.cfm?id=Colombia . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- BusinessWeek, Colombia, The Most Extreme Emerging Market on Earth 28 May 2007
- "BOST project" . UNCO United Refineries . http://www.uncounitedrefineries.com/content/bostproject2.php . Retrieved 8 June 2008 .
- By Marián Hens (7 December 2007). "BBC News, A new hot-spot for the tourism industry" . BBC News . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7120906.stm . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- "Hot Destination: Colombia" . Christian Science Monitor . 9 May 2006 . http://www.csmonitor.com/2006/0509/p06s01-woam.html .
- UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2010 Edition . World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
- By Juan Uribe and Astrid López (29 February 2012). "Portafolio, En el 2011 llegaron a Colombia 3 millones de extranjeros" (in spanish). Portafolio . http://www.portafolio.co/economia/el-2011-llegaron-colombia-3-millones-extranjeros .
- "En servicio el túnel de Occidente, el más largo del país" . Presidencia.gov.co . http://www.presidencia.gov.co/prensa_new/sne/2006/enero/20/04202006.htm . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- García, Alfredo (18 November 2011). "El Gobierno invertirá en la construcción de más dobles calzadas" (in Spanish). El Pais . http://elpais.com.co/elpais/colombia/noticias/gobierno-invertira-en-construccion-dobles-calzadas .
- Movimento Operacional Acumulado da REDE INFRAERO (Janeiro até Dezembro de 2008) . Infraero.gov.br
- Rathbone, Jhn Paul and Mapstone, Naomi (13 February 2011). "China in talks over Panama Canal rival" . Financial Times . http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/7e14756c-37a9-11e0-b91a-00144feabdc0.html?ftcamp=rss#axzz1Dw79Zosw . Retrieved 14 May 2011 .
- David R. Davis, Brett Ashley Leeds and Will H. Moore (21 November 1998). "Measuring Dissident and state behaviour: The Intranational Political Interactions (IPI) Project" (PDF). Florida State University . http://garnet.acns.fsu.edu/~whmoore/ipi/harmel.conf.pdf . Retrieved 5 January 2008 .
- Jan Kippers Black (2005). Latin America, its problems and its promise: a multidisciplinary introduction . Westview出版社。頁。
- Aura Rodríguez (2012). "Extraction-led growth versus people's well-being" . Corporación Cactus, Coordinación . http://www.socialwatch.org/node/13983 . Retrieved 5 March 2012 .
- United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (3 February 2011). "Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Colombia" (PDF) . http://www.hchr.org.co/documentoseinformes/informes/altocomisionado/Informe2010_eng.pdf . Retrieved 27 April 2012 .
- "Colombia" . http://www.tearfund.org/en/what_we_do_and_where/countries/latin_america_and_caribbean/colombia/ . Retrieved 5 March 2012 .
- Colombia, Opinion survey 2009 , by ICRC and Ipsos
- "Colombia in Crisis" . Jon Lottman, Center for Defense Information . http://www.cdi.org/adm/1315/transcript.html .檢索二零一零年九月八日 。
- International Trade Union Confederation , 11 June 2010, ITUC responds to the press release issued by the Colombian Interior Ministry concerning its survey
- Julio Enrique Soler. "Globalisation, poverty, and inequity" . National report . http://www.socialwatch.org/node/10587 . Retrieved 5 March 2012 .
- Sean Sprague. "Poverty, Inequality and Drugs" . Documents and Links . http://www.abcolombia.org.uk/mainpage.asp?mainid=76 . Retrieved 5 March 2012 .
- "Almost Half of 43.7 Million Colombians Live Below the Poverty Line" . Latin American Economy . 3月4日Retrieved 5 March 2012 .
- United Nations (January 2010). "Statistical Yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2009" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean . http://websie.eclac.cl/anuario_estadistico/anuario_2009/pdf/Anuario_2009.pdf . Retrieved 12 May 2012 .
- "Almost Half of 43.7 Million Colombians Live Below the Poverty Line" . MercoPress . 4 May 2010 . http://en.mercopress.com/2010/05/04/almost-half-of-43.7-million-colombians-live-below-the-poverty-line . Retrieved 25 July 2010 .
- "¿Por qué Colombia no sale del club de los pobres?" . Revista Semana . 13 March 2010 . http://www.semana.com/noticias-nacion/colombia-no-sale-del-club-pobres/136288.aspx . Retrieved 25 July 2010 .
- "OHCHR in Colombia (2008–2009)" . Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights . http://www.ohchr.org/EN/countries/LACRegion/Pages/COSummary0809.aspx . Retrieved 25 July 2010 .
- " Colombia – Population ". Library of Congress Country Studies .
- "Colombia: A Country Study" . Countrystudies.us . http://countrystudies.us/colombia/36.htm . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- "Colombia has most displaced in world: UN" . Colombia Reports. 9 November 2010 . http://colombiareports.com/colombia-news/news/12808-colombia-has-most-displaced-in-the-world.html . Retrieved 14 May 2011 .
- Number of internally displaced people remains stable at 26 million . Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 4 May 2009.
- "Francisco Moreno Fernandez y Jaime Otero Roth" Instituto Complutense de Estudios Internacionales-Fundacion Telefonica (mars 2006). "Demografia de la lengua española" (PDF). ="Francisco Moreno Fernandez y Jaime Otero Roth" ICEI-Fundacion Telefonica . https://eprints.ucm.es/8936/1/DT03-06.pdf . Retrieved 7 February 2013 .
- "Colombia" . CIA . 9 janvier 2012 . https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2091.html . Retrieved 7 February 2013 .
- El Espectador (9 September 2011). "Colombia: 1'672.000 analfabetas" (in Spanish). El Espectador . http://www.elespectador.com/impreso/vivir/articulo-297906-colombia-1672000-analfabetas . Retrieved 7 February 2013 .
- Unidad de Estadísticas de la UNESCO (2007). "Gasto en educación como porcentaje del PIB" (in Spanish) . http://menweb.mineducacion.gov.co/seguimiento/estadisticas/principal_com.php?consulta=gasto_int&nivel=28 . Retrieved 7 February 2013 .
- "2011 Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (estimate)" . Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística. 31 December 2011 . http://www.dane.gov.co/daneweb_V09/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=75&Itemid=72 . Retrieved 4 September 2011 .
- "Comunidades Negras: Poblacion Negra Afrocolombiana" . Todacolombia.com. 28 March 2007 . http://www.todacolombia.com/etnias/afrocolombianos/poblacion.html . Retrieved 14 November 2010 .
- Bushnell & Hudson, pp. 86–87.
- "The Languages of Colombia" . Ethnologue.com . http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=Colombia . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- Bushnell & Hudson, pp. 87–88.
- EPM (2005). "La etnia Wayuu" (in Spanish). Empresas Publicas de Medellín . Archived from the original on 19 February 2008 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080219042234/http://www.eeppm.com/epmcom/contenido/acercade/infraestructura/generacion/Jepirachi/etnia.htm . Retrieved 29 February 2008 .
- "Los Resguardos Indígenas" . Etniasdecolombia.org.歸檔從原 Retrieved 14 May 2011 .
- EPM (2005). "La etnia Wayuu" (in Spanish). Empresas Publicas de Medellín . Archived from the original on 19 February 2008 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080219042234/http://www.eeppm.com/epmcom/contenido/acercade/infraestructura/generacion/Jepirachi/etnia.htm . Retrieved 29 February 2008 .
- Análisis de la migración venezolana a Colombia durante el gobierno de Hugo Chávez (1999–2011). Identificación de capital social y compensación económica | Echeverry Hernández | Revista Análisis Internacional . Revistas.utadeo.edu.co (10 February 2012). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
- Llegaron los venezolanos, Articulo Impreso Archivado . Semana.com (11 March 2012). Retrieved on 8 October 2012.
- (Spanish) Colombia una Los grupos étnicos colombianos
- "Religious Intelligence – Country Profile: Colombia" . Archived from the original on 27 September 2007 . http://web.archive.org/web/20070927194326/http://www.religiousintelligence.co.uk/country/?CountryID=78 . Retrieved 3 October 2007 .
- International Religious Freedom Report 2005 , by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US Department of State, 8 November 2005.
- Colombia . State.gov. Retrieved on 14 May 2012.
- Constitution of Colombia, 1991 (Article 19)
- PRIMER CONGRESO MUNDIAL DE ATEOS escuelaideologica.org. Retrieved on 13 February 2013
- "Turismo de salud en Colombia: Preparándose para ser de clase mundial" (in Spanish). Colombia Tavel . http://www.colombia.travel/es/turista-internacional/actividad/atracciones-turisticas-recomendadas-informes-especiales/turismo-de-salud . Retrieved 31 January 2013 .
- "Cali, destino mundial para turismo de salud y cirugías estéticas" (in Spanish). El Tiempo . http://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento/CMS-7754931 . Retrieved 31 January 2013 .
- "Facultad de Minas (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre" (in (Spanish) ). Es.wikipedia.org. 2013-01-22 . http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facultad_de_Minas_(Universidad_Nacional_de_Colombia) . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- Artículo 67, Constitución Política de Colombia
- "Ministerio de Educación de Colombia, Estructura del sistema educativo" .歸檔從原 Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- "UNESCO Institute for Statistics Colombia Profile" . http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId=289&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=1700&BR_Region=40520 . Retrieved 16 May 2010 .
- "Andrés Orozco-Estrada named Houston Symphony Orchestra music director" . gramophone.co.uk. 2013-01-21 . http://www.gramophone.co.uk/classical-music-news/andr%C3%A9s-orozco-estrada-named-houston-symphony-orchestra-music-director . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- Fohr, D. Mythes et rélatéis del'Amérique Latine a travers le dépliantpublicitaire touristique. Thásedu 3ecy-de, Université de París III, 1981.
- Bouroon, J. "Les étrangers au primetime ou, la télévision est-elle xénophobe? Télévision d'Europe et Immigration. INA et Association Dialogue entre cultures, 1993
- Philip Kotler; Matthew G. Whitehouse (2007). Marketing internacional de lugares y destinos: Estrategias para la atracción de clientes y negocios en Latinoamérica . Pearson Educación. ISBN 978-970-26-0852-3 . http://books.google.com/books?id=YiXXit963V4C .
- AC Zentella. "'José, can you see?': Latino Responses to Racist Discourse.". Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- (Spanish) Rodriguez, P. Estereotipos denacionalidad en estudiantes colombianos y venezolanos. Boletín de la VEPSO, XV(1–3): 65–74,1992
- Henri Tajfel (24 June 2010). Social Identity and Intergroup Relations . Cambridge University Press. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-0-521-15365-2 . http://books.google.com/books?id=h_YA9CYXgG0C&pg=PA207 . Retrieved 8 October 2012 .
- Con el corazón, Colombia cambia su imagen . Tiempoviajes.com (5 August 2009)
- Simon Jenkins (2 February 2007). "Passion alone won't rescue Colombia from its narco-economy stigma" . The Guardian (London) . http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,2004170,00.html .
- "Academia Costarricense de la Lengua" . Acl.ac.cr . http://www.acl.ac.cr/i_h.php . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Artículo: Piedra y Cielo a contraluz" . Lablaa.org . http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/publicacionesbanrep/boletin/bole69/bolet1a.htm . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango" . Lablaa.org. 2005-06-24 . http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/publicacionesbanrep/boletin/boleti5/bol33/nadais10.htm . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Arte-Noticias" . Extroversia.universia.net.co . http://extroversia.universia.net.co/html/arteylit/archivoNoticiasAntesVer.jsp?actualConsecutivo=636&ann=2006&mess=Marzo . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Home Page Title Example..." . museodeantioquia.org . http://www.museodeantioquia.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=10&Itemid=29 . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Primer Salon Nacional De Artistas - Eduardo Santos" . ColombiaLink.com . http://www.colombialink.com/01_INDEX/index_historia/07_otros_hechos_historicos/0240_salon_nacional_artistas.html . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- Macondo visto por Leo Matiz . Bogotá, Colombia: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, República de Colombia. 2009 . http://mre.cancilleria.gov.co/wps/wcm/connect/a8afea80424f9a41b6dcb7552022233f/Leo+Matiz.pdf?MOD=AJPERES .
- Consejo Nacional de Música , Ministerio de Cultura
- Quiénes Somos , Sociedad de Autores y Compositores de Colombia
-  [ dead link ]
- La Jornada. "Planeta compra El Tiempo de Colombia; Prisa, Radio Chile - La Jornada" . Jornada.unam.mx . http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2007/08/02/index.php?section=mundo&article=028n2mun . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Jugos naturales" . Colombia.travel . http://www.colombia.travel/es/turista-internacional/actividad/gastronomia-colombiana/jugos-naturales . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Especiales - La cocina de la abuela, Artículo Impresa" . Semana.com. 2007-08-18 . http://www.semana.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?IdArt=105624 . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- cinep. "Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango" . Lablaa.org . http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/geografia/region1/cap9c.htm . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "COCINA-COLOMBIANA-DIVERSIDAD-PLATOS-POSTRES-COMIDA-TIPICA-SANCOCHOS-TAMALES-AREPAS-REPORTAJE-2007" . Extroversia.universia.net.co . http://extroversia.universia.net.co/html/reportajes/rep2007/cocina_colombiana/p_01.jsp . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- "Gastronomía - Informe Especial - Restaurante Casa Vieja" . Www.Colombia.Com . http://www.colombia.com/gastronomia/especiales/especial_3/altiplano.asp . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
-  [ 死的鏈接 ]
- "Colombia Cultural - GastronomÃa - VALLE DEL CAUCA" . SINIC . http://www.sinic.gov.co/SINIC/ColombiaCultural/ColCulturalBusca.aspx?AREID=3&SECID=8&IdDep=76&COLTEM=214 . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- Spain finish 2012 on top, Colombia in fifth . fifa.com (19 December 2012). Retrieved on 19 December 2012
- "The 2010 SF N World Series Batting Log for Edgar Renteria" . Retrosheet . http://www.retrosheet.org/boxesetc/2010/Irente0013352010.htm . Retrieved 21 March 2011 .
- Jesse Sanchez (2 August 2010) Caribbean Series facing a youth movement . mlb.com
- David Adams. "Edgar Renteria Online" . www.edgarrenteria.com. Archived from the original on 2008-08-29 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080829002149/http://edgarrenteria.com/article14.html . Retrieved 15 June 2008 .
- "Edgar Renteria and Orlando Cabrera do not get along these days" . sports.yahoo.com . http://sports.yahoo.com/mlb/blog/big_league_stew/post/Edgar-Renteria-and-Orlando-Cabrera-do-not-get-al?urn=mlb,78831 . Retrieved 15 June 2008 .
- "Mundial deTaekwondo: Colombia se mantiene en el tercer lugar" . El Colombiano . http://www.elcolombiano.com/BancoConocimiento/_/_mundial_detaekwondo_colombia_se_mantiene_en_el_tercer_lugar/_mundial_detaekwondo_colombia_se_mantiene_en_el_tercer_lugar.asp?CodSeccion=211 . Retrieved 2013-02-18 .
- Mariana Pajón es la mejor deportista latinoamericana, según encuesta cubana . elcolombiano.com (20 December 2012).
- Oscar Figueroa . sports-reference.com
[ 編輯 ] 參考書目
- Bushnell, David (1993), The Making of Modern Colombia: A Nation in Spite of Itself . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08289-3
[ 編輯 ]
|Find more about Colombia at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
- Portal del Estado – Colombia Online Government web site (Spanish)
- Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi – Maps of Colombia (Spanish)
- Geographic data related to Colombia at OpenStreetMap
- Colombia at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Colombia entry at The World Factbook
- Colombia History Geography and Culture
- Colombia at UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Colombia at the Open Directory Project
- Colombia profile from the BBC News
- colombiareports.com/ - Colombia Reports ] – Colombia's main news website in English
- Witness for Peace: Colombia Program
- Satellital view of all cities of Colombia
- Colombia: a top emerging country – Official investment portal report
- The ICRC in Colombia
- Key Development Forecasts for Colombia from International Futures
- Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica – National Administrative Department of Statistics (Spanish)